This part discusses the following topics:
v Taharah (purification); its definition and categories.
v Types of water and the Islamic ruling of each.
v Etiquette of Qadaa' Al-Haajah (Islamic Toilet Etiquette)
v Najasaat (Impurities) and divided into:
- Impurities that come out from urogenital system
- Impurities that come out from other parts of the body
- Some other impurities
Definition of Taharah (Purification)
"Taharah" means cleanliness linguistically and in Islamic terms it means the removal of filthy substances as commanded by the Legislator, or washing specific parts of the body in a specific way.
Allah Almighty says:
)يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُباً فَاطَّهَّرُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَـكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهَّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ(
"O you who believe, when you stand up to pray wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and your feet up to the ankles. If you are defiled, purify yourselves; but if you are sick, or on a journey, or if any of you comes from the privy, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then head for wholesome dust, and wipe your faces and your hands with it. Allah does not desire to make any hardship for you; but He desires to purify you, and that He may perfect His grace upon you; so that you might give thanks."[5:6]
Categories of Taharah
Taharah can be divided into two categories:
A) Taharah from Najas or Khabath (physical impurity)
B) Taharah form Hadath (ritual impurity)
Najas or Khabath is physical impurities or filth (Najasah); it is an object that is considered filthy by Islamic law and prevents the validity of prayer.
Hadath is a state of the body that invalidates the state of Taharah, or it is ritual impurity that prevents from prayer, Tawaf (Circumambulation of Ka'aba) and such, and Taharah (purification) is condition for it.
Hadath is divided into two types; Hadath Asghar (minor impurity) and Hadath Akbar (major impurity). Hadath Asghar is what necessitates wudhu' (ablution). This type of impurity is caused by things like touching filth, or passing stool, urine or wind.
Hadath Asghar (minor impurity) means that one cannot do the following acts of worship except after having ablution (wudhu'):
- Performing prayer. The Messenger of Allah B said: "…and there is no prayer for one who does not have ablution." [Ar-Rabee#91]
- Making Tawaf (circumambulation) around the House (the Ka'aba). The Prophet B said: "Tawaf is a prayer. However, Allah has allowed speaking during Tawaf. Whoever speaks while doing it should only say something good." [Related by Al-Hakim #3013]
- Touching the Qur'an (according to some views). According to Hadith related by Ar-Rabee' that the Prophet B said about one who is Junub (a person in the state of ritual impurity) or menstruating or who is not in the state of Taharah: " They do not recite the Quran and they do not touch a copy of the Quran with their hands unless they perform ablution (after attaining purity)." [Ar-Rabee' #11]
Hadath Akbar is what necessitates Ghusl (ritual bathing); after attaining ritual purity. This type of impurity may be caused by menstruation, postnatal bleeding, or Janabah which is a state of ritual impurity resulting from having sexual intercourse, ejaculation , and wet dream (Ihtilaam).
Being in the state of Hadath Akbar means that one cannot do the following acts:
- Performing prayer. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Allah does not accept Salah (prayer) without purification."[An-Nasa'i #139]
- Making Tawaf around the Ka'aba. ‘Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said: 'I was menstruating when I reached Makkah. So, I neither performed Tawaf of the Ka`bah, nor the Tawaf between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah. Then I informed Allah's Messenger B about it. He said, "Do everything that is performed by a pilgrim, except that you do not perform Tawaf (circumambulation) of the Ka`bah till you get clean (from your menses)." [A'Rabee'#440]
- Fasting. The Prophet B said: "Whoever gets into dawn in the state of Janabah gets into dawn as a non-fasting." [Ar-Rabee', #315]. 'Aisah narrated: "We would menstruate during the time of the Messenger of Allah B, then when we became pure we were ordered to make up the fasts but we were not ordered to make up the Salat (prayer)." [At-Termidhi #717]
And if fasting is prevented then I'tikaf (Going into Retreat) will also be prevented, as it is conditioned with fasting.
- Reciting, writing and touching the Quran. The Prophet B said about one who is Junub (a person in the state of ritual impurity) or menstruating or who is not in the state of Taharah: " They do not recite the Quran and they do not touch a copy of the Quran with their hands unless they perform ablution (after attaining purity)." [Ar-Rabee' #11]
- Having sexual intercourse (during menses and postnatal bleeding). Allah says:
(فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللّهُ)
"… so part with women in the monthly period, and do not approach them until they are pure; when they have cleansed themselves, then come to them, as God has commanded you'…"[2:222]
- Entering mosque. Allah Almighty says:
)يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلاَةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَى حَتَّىَ تَعْلَمُواْ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىَ تَغْتَسِلُواْ)
"O you who believe, draw not near to prayer, whilst you are inebriated, until you know what you are saying, nor whilst you are Junub (defiled), unless you are traversing a way, until you have washed yourselves…"[4:43]
Taharah from Hadath is an act of worship. It is realized by making Wudhu' or Ghusl depending on the type of Hadath. It cannot be valid without Niyyah (intention). So, none of Wudhu' or Ghusl shall be deemed proper unless it is coupled with the Niyyah or intention to seek Allah's good-pleasure.
Niyyah is not a prescribed formula to be recited. Rather, it is a consciousness of purpose that occurs in the mind.
If it is simple cleanliness, then cleansing does not require Niyyah. Just like removing any impurities, it is not essential to have intention. It is accomplished by the removal of the impurity.
Water is the most powerful cleaning agent that can be used for removal of filth. Originally, it is the only cleaning agent that is used to remove ritual impurities.
Jurists divide water according to its rulings into three categories:
1) Mutlaq water (also known as Tahoor water) is that water that remained upon the characteristics of its nature.
Allah the Almighty says:
وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيْكُم مِّن السَّمَاء مَاء لِّيُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِ))
"… and sent down upon you water from the heaven, to purify you thereby." [8:11]
The types include: rain water, sea water, springs (including Zamzam water), aflaj water (i.e. water channel), wadis (valleys), rivers, well water, etc.
Following this category is water that changes due to long storage (e.g. water comes from the tap with a clear yellow tint) and water that becomes mixed with a substance that does not separate from it in most of the time like moss (or algae), salt, tree leaves, and soil.
Its ruling: It removes Khabath and purifies Hadath. That is, it removes the state of Hadath (ritual impurity), and eliminates Khabath (filth).
This kind of water is considered pure because of its inherent purity and as such, it can be used by an individual to purify him or herself by ablution (Wudhu') and the ritual bathing (Ghusl).
|Wadi Bani Khalid, Oman|
|Falaj Daris, Nizwa, Oman|
|Al-Kasfa Hot Spring, Al-Rustaq, Oman|
|Salalah Beach, Dhofar, Oman|
2) Tahir water is water that has been mixed with substances that are considered inherently pure. Examples of pure substances are saffron, soap, water extracted from plants and others.
Its ruling: It removes Khabath but incapable of lifting Hadath. That is, it may be used to remove impurities from one's body, one's clothing, or a place but it is incapable of removing the state of major or minor ritual impurity.
3) Najis water is water that becomes Najis (filthy) when filth falls in it causing its colour, taste, or smell to change as a result of it.
Its ruling: It is neither capable of eliminating Khabath nor Hadath.
· Large quantity of water, which is more than two large earthen pots or Qullas (one Qulla is equivalent to about 100 kilograms), even if it is mixed with impure substances, but does not change its taste, colour or odour, is considered Tahoor (pure in itself and a purifying agent).
|Qulla (a large earthen pot)|
Ibn Abbas narrated that the Prophet B said: “Water is Tahoor (pure and purifying); nothing can render it impure, except what changes its colour, taste, or odour.” [Related by A'Rabee #156]
· If water is less than two Qullas, and filth falls in it and changes one of its three qualities, it would become impure.
· Scholars disagree about water that is less than two Qullas and filth falls in it but causes no changes in its three qualities, whether it is rendered impure or not. Some scholars say it is rendered impure while others say it is not.
· Mustamal water (used water) is that which is left over after one does Wudhu' or Ghusl. Scholars disagree on its ruling. Some scholars attach it to Mutlaq water and therefore, may be used to purify oneself. While others attach it to Tahir water and hence cannot be used for Wudhu' or Ghusl.
· So'ur (leftover Water): This is water that is leftover after something drank from it. This is divided into what or who has drank from the water.
- Water leftover after people drank from it. This water is considered Tahoor (pure and purifying).
- Water leftover after an animal drank from it, whose meat is permissible for consumption. Such water is considered pure and allowed for purification.
- Water remaining in a pot after a cat drank from it. This water is also considered pure
- Water leftover after an animal drank from it, who is Najis (impure) for example pig or dog. This water is considered impure.
Muslims are required to follow particular rules regarding personal hygiene when relieving themselves. This code is known as Qadaa` Al-Haajah.
The collection of Islamic rules when using the restroom are:
1. One should not enter the toilet while carrying anything that bears the name of Allah, such as the Holy Quran, or anything with the name of Allah in it, e.g. jewelry such as bracelets and necklaces engraved with the name of Allah.
2. One should be out of sight of people. It was narrated that Mugirah bin Shu'bah said: "Whenever the Prophet B went to relieve himself, he would go far away." [Ibn Majah #355]
3. A person should avoid shaded places where people walk or take rest or gather for any purpose. Abu Hurairah narrated the Prophet B as saying: "Be on your guard against two things which provoke cursing." They (the hearers) said: "Prophet of Allah, what are these things which provoke cursing?" He said: "easing in the watering places and on the thoroughfares, and in the shade (of the tree)(where they take shelter and rest)."[Abu Dawud#23]
4. If a person is driven by necessity to relieve himself, he should not face the Qiblah or turn his back to it. It was narrated that Jabir said: "The Messenger of Allah B said: "Do not face the Qiblah while urinating, nor while defecating."[Ar-Rabee#77] However, scholars disagreed a lot on this issue. The formal legal opinion is that this prohibition applies to one who is relieving himself in an open place such as deserts but inside buildings, it is permissible to face the Qiblah or turn one’s back towards it when relieving oneself; and this is the opinion of Ibn Abbas.
5. One should enter the bathroom with his left foot and should recite the following Du'a (supplication):
"اللهم إني أعوذ بك من الخبث والخبائث"
[Allâhumma innî a'ûdhu bika mina-l-khubthi wa-l-khabâ’ith]
“O Allah, I seek refuge in you from the male and female evil Jinn.” One should come out from the bathroom with the right foot and should pray this Du'a:
“(O Allah) I seek forgiveness and pardon from you.”
6. One should sit down when relieving himself. The Prophet B always sat down to relieve himself.
7. A person should not uncover his private parts until after he has squatted close to the ground, because this is more concealing, as Ibn Abbas narrated: "One of the Etiquette of the Prophet B is that when he wanted to answer the call of nature, he would not lift his izar (lower garment) until he was close to the ground." [Ar-Rabee'#84]
8. One should be very careful about the splashing of urine. He should therefore avoid facing the wind while urinating.
9. One should not relieve oneself into a hole in the ground. Abdullah ibn Abbas narrated: “The Messenger of Allah forbade urination and defecation into holes.” Ibn Abbas said: “He, may Allah's peace be upon him, forbade it because they (the holes) are the residences of your brothers from amongst the jinn.” [Ar-Rabee'#83]
10. One should keep silent while relieving himself unless for a necessity. It was narrated that Ibn Abbas said: "And a man passed by the Prophet B while he was urinating and greeted him (with the Salam), and he did not return the greeting." [Ar-Rabee#84]
11. After using the toilet, one should make Istibraa, Istijmar, and Istinjaa.
Istibraa, which is making sure all traces of urine are gone. It is wajib (obligatory) to do it. The Prophet B once passed by two graves, and those two persons (in the graves) were being tortured and said: "They are being tortured, and they are not being tortured for a major sin. One of them used not to save himself from (being soiled with) the urine, and the other used to go about with calumnies (Namima) among the people." [Ar-Rabee'#487]
One of the preferred methods of Istibraa is that after the passing of urine,by gently squeezing the male private part with the left hand and gently working the way down from the root up to the glans.
Istijmar is to remove the remaining traces of physical impurity using stones or another material in its place (such as wood, toilet paper etc.)
Istinjaa, is to clean the two outlets of impurity (the front side and the backside) after urinating or moving the bowels by washing them with Tahoor (pure and purifying) water or Tahir (pure) water. Istinjaa is to be done after Istibraa and Istijmar. It is wajib (obligatory) to make it for the one who wants to make Wudhu' (ablution) for prayer; unless he is prevented from using water. Thus a person who forgets to use water must repeat his prayer because it was not fulfilled.
Allah praised the people of Qiba' and their love of cleanliness, saying:
) لَّمَسْجِدٌ أُسِّسَ عَلَى التَّقْوَى مِنْ أَوَّلِ يَوْمٍ أَحَقُّ أَن تَقُومَ فِيهِ فِيهِ رِجَالٌ يُحِبُّونَ أَن يَتَطَهَّرُواْ وَاللّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُطَّهِّرِينَ)
"A mosque which was founded upon piety from the first day is worthier for you to stand therein; in it are men who love to purify themselves; and Allah loves those who purify themselves."[9:108]
The ritual prayer has certain prerequisites, such as cleanliness of the body and clothes, as well as the spot on which the prayer is to be performed. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Allah does not accept Salah (prayer) without purification." [An-Nasa'i #139]
Therefore, a Muslim must beware of Najaasah (impurity) and try to avoid it as much as he can.
Impurities that come out from urogenital system
· Urine: It is impure and should be washed and rubbed with water, whether it is from human or animal sources. An exception is the urine of a male (but not the female) infant who has not yet eaten solids. It is sufficient for it to be splashed with water enough to get it wet [but not necessarily rubbed]; this is due to the Hadith of Um Qays bint Mihsan, in which she came to the Messenger of Allah B with her infant son who has not eaten solids, so he sat him on his lap, and the boy urinated on his garment, so he called for some water, and sprayed it, and did not wash it.
This means that there is difference in the urine of a boy and a girl. In the suckling period, girl's urine is more impure than the boy's urine.
· Faeces: The waste matter passed from the human body is inherently Najis (impure). Allah, the Exalted, says:
) أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ)
"…or if any of you comes from the privy..."[5:6]
The excretion of those animals who are Haram (impermissible) to eat is also Najis. However, the refuse and dung of animals, whose meat is halal (permissible) to eat is Tahir (pure).
Droppings of religiously edible birds are pure according to some scholars.
· Blood of Haidh (menses), blood of Istihadha (prolonged abnormal bleeding), and blood of Nifas (postpartum bleeding). These are Najis (impure); as for the saying of the Messenger of Allah B: "Mani (sexual or ejaculate fluid), Madhi (pre-sexual or pre- ejaculate fluid), Wadi (fluid discharged after urination), blood of Haidh (menses), and blood of Nifas (postpartum bleeding) are Najis (impure). None should offer prayer in a garment in which one of these has dropped until it is washed and its trace disappears." [Ar-Rabee'#148]
Blood of Haidh (Menstrual Blood) is defined as a natural type of blood that flows out naturally at regular intervals from a woman's uterus after she has attained puberty and is able to conceive. Menstrual bloods is dark in colour (sometimes even black), thick, and with a strong odour.
Blood of Istihadha (prolonged abnormal bleeding) is vaginal bleeding for reasons other than menstruation or childbirth. The blood is bright red, thin and less disagreeable in smell.
Blood of Nifas (postpartum bleeding) is the blood seen after childbirth or during delivery, whether the baby was fully formed or not.
· Mani, Madhi, and Wadi. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Mani, Madhi, Wadi, blood of menses, and blood of postpartum bleeding are impure. None should offer prayer in a garment in which one of these has dropped until it is washed and its trace disappears." [Ar-Rabee'#148]
And the difference between them is as follows:
Mani (sexual or ejaculate fluid) is the fluid emitted by the male or female as the result of sexual ejaculation. After the emission of Mani, the erection subsides. With respect to men, it is a white thick fluid that smells like the flowers of a date palm tree. The sexual fluid of a woman is a thin liquid.
The emission of Mani necessitates a ritual bath for purification (Ghusl) for men and women.
Madhi (pre-sexual or pre- ejaculate fluid) is a clear thin fluid which releases (from males and females) during arousal without gushing and does not diminish the arousal.
Madhi is impure (Najis). This means that the body parts and clothing that became affected must be purified with water before praying.
The emission of Madhi necessitates ablution (Wudhu'). As for the Prophet B saying: "Madhi necessitates Wudhu' and Mani necessitates Ghusl." [Ar-Rabee' #102&132]
Wadi is defined as a thick white cloudy secretion that is released without lust, and is discharged (by some people) after urination. It tends to be released because of cold or illness. Wadi is impure but merely cleaning one's private parts will suffice. The emission breaks Wudhu'. Therefore, in order for one to perform Salah (Prayer), he or she will have to renew the Wudhu'.
· Woman's Tuhr
The Tuhr is a very white discharge that signals the end of menses or postpartum bleeding. The reason for it being Najis or impure is due to its passing through the passage of impurity at the time of its release.
Vaginal secretions, as well as wind emitted from a woman’s vagina are both pure and have the same duct. Therefore, they do not break Wudhu' (ablution) or invalidate Tawaf, according to some scholars' opinion.
· Everything that comes out from the two outlets of impurity even if not customary such as stones and worms is impure due to its passing through the passage of impurity. It could be rendered pure if it is washed and cleaned from impurities.
Impurities that come out from other parts of the body
Vomit is defined as matter (such as food or drink) ejected from the stomach through the mouth until it fills it. Vomit, including baby vomit is considered impure (Najis) and breaks Wudhu'. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Whoever vomits or emits Qalas (reflux) should perform ablution." [Ar-Rabee'#109]
Qalas (reflux) is defined as matter ejected far up into the throat and reaches the mouth but does not fill it. It is impure and invalidates Wudhu'.
Nosebleed is blood coming out of the nose continuously due to some reasons such as bleeding.
Vomit, Qalas, and nosebleed break Wudhu' but not Salah (prayer). The Messenger of Allah B said: "Vomit and nosebleed do not invalidate the prayer. If the one praying left due to them, he should perform ablution and complete his prayer." [Ar-Rabee' #113]
· Dam Masfooh (blood that pours forth)
Dam Masfooh is blood that pours forth from the body. It is ruled as impure by Quranic text:
(أَوْ دَماً مَّسْفُوحاً)
"…or blood poured forth…"[6:145]
It takes many forms such as blood from wounds and blood that comes out from feet cracks.
The blood that remains in the meat and in the veins of a slaughtered animal is pure.
The blood of fish and sea animal are pure.
All parts of pigs are Najis (impure). Allah describes pigs by saying in the Holy Quran:
)أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ)
"...or the flesh of swine - that indeed is an abomination..."[6:145]
Dogs are impure and filthy. This is based on what Abu Huraira narrated that Prophet Muhammad B said: "If a dog licks a utensil belonging to any one of you, let him throw (the content) away and wash it (i.e. the utensil) seven times; the first and the last of them with soil." [Ar-Rabee' #153]
· Wild Animals with Fangs and Birds with Talons
Carnivorous animals that have fangs and birds that have talons are impure. The evidence of their impurity is the saying of the Prophet B said: "The eating of all fanged beasts of prey and all the birds having talons is Haram (unlawful)." [Ar-Rabee'#387]
Jallalah is defined as an animal that is addicted to eating filth. Ibn 'Umar narrated: "The Messenger of Allah B prohibited eating the Jallalah and milking it." [Abu Dawud#3291]
The water leftover after a Jallalah drank from it, as well as, its waste are considered impure.
If the Jallalah animal is kept away from the other animals for some time and is given clean food to eat, then it becomes pure. Birds need a minimum of one day and night to become pure, while camels and cows need a minimum of seven days to become pure.
· Maytah (Carrion)
Maytah is an animal which has running blood and died without legal slaughtering. The Quranic evidence for its being Najis (impure) is Allah's saying:
(إِلاَّ أَن يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً)
"…except it be carrion..."[6:145]
· A Maytah is impure except for the following parts: hair, wool, fur, extremities of feathers, and the skin once it is tanned. The Messenger of Allah B said: "… It is only unlawful to eat it, and any skin that has been tanned has been purified."[Ar-Rabee'#389]
· The Maytah (dead meats) of locust and sea animals are pure. Allah’s Messenger B said: "Two types of dead animals and two types of bloods have been made lawful for you, the two types of dead animals are locusts and fish, and the two types of bloods are the liver and the spleen." [Ar-Rabee'#618].
· The Maytah (dead bodies) of those that have no blood in them such as fly, beetle, and scorpion, are pure. The Prophet B said: "When a fly falls in the vessel of one of you, he should plunge it all in, for in one of its wings there is a disease, and in the other is a cure. And it puts the disease first and holds back the cure."[Ar-Rabee'#371]
· The Maytah (dead body) of fetus which is found dead in the belly of its slaughtered mother is pure and eating if its flesh permissible for consumption. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Slaughtering the fetus is (fulfilled with) the slaughter of its mother."[Abu-Dawud#2445]
· The Maytah (dead body) of hunted animals is pure and permissible for consumption if the hunter utters the name of Allah before shooting the prey, or sending the trained animal that is going to catch the prey. But if the hunter sees that the prey is not killed then he must slaughter it in the prescribed way and take Allah’s name while slaughtering it.
· The jurists disagree as to whether or not grape wine (Khamr) is ritually Najis (impure). The majority of scholars agree that intoxicating alcohol is Najis (impure). However, there is considerable legal evidence to support the opinion that it is Tahir (pure) [though prohibited to consume]; unless it is made from impure ingredients. Their evidence was that, when it was declared Haram (prohibited), the Companions spilled out the existing quantities of wine in the roads of Madina. These scholars said that the Prophet would not have allowed grape wine to be disposed of in this way. Hence [according to this minority] grape wine (Khamr) is ritually pure.
· Scholars disagree as to whether a pagan polytheist is materially pure or impure. The point here is Allah's saying:
) إِنَّمَا الْمُشْرِكُونَ نَجَسٌ)
"Verily, the Mushrikun (polytheists) are Najasun (impurity)." [9:28]
The scholars have two opinions. Some says that their impurity is physical, while others say that their impurity is spiritual. The significance of this disagreement appears when ruling on their wetness. Based on the opinion that the impurity of pagan polytheists is physical, coming into wet contact with a pagan polytheist (e.g. by shaking hands) will break Wudhu' (ablution).
The formal legal opinion concerning Kitabi (among the people of the book) polytheists (i.e. Jewish or Christian) is that they are pure. This is because Allah Almighty has permitted their food and slaughters to Muslims, and also because He permitted the marriage of the free Kitabi women to Muslims.