Friday, September 20, 2013

Hajj (Pilgrimage) Jurisprudence (Part 4)

Part 4 of Hajj jurisprudence discusses different topics. These include: Eid sacrifice (Udhiyah), penalties in Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. Fidyah and Jazaa), matters that invalidate Hajj, the rites of 'Umrah, and some Fatwas relating to women.

Sacrifice (Udhiyah)
·        On the Day of Sacrifice, a non-pilgrim anywhere slaughters what he wishes amongst the grazing livestock as a sacrifice and an act of devotion to Almighty Allah. 'Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) said that the Prophet B said, "No act of devotion done by man on the Day of Sacrifice is dearer to Allah than shedding blood (of a sacrificial animal)." (Reported by A’Tirmidhi).
·        Sacrifice of a grazing animal amongst livestock on the Day of Sacrifice is a highly recommended Sunnah (prophetic practice), and so it is undesirable to leave it if one is capable of doing it. Umm Salamah reported Allah's Messenger B to have said, "He who has a sacrificial animal with him (whom he intends) to offer as a sacrifice, and enters the month of Dhul-Hijjah, should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed until he has sacrificed the animal". (Muslim, Book 22, #4873)

Conditions for the sacrificial animal to be acceptable:
·        The animal must be free of deformities. For example, it shouldn't have an obvious defect, such as being one-eyed, nor should it have a sickness or limp that is apparent.
·        It must be an animal of livestock like a camel, cow, goat or sheep.
·        The time for offering the sacrifice, begins after the dawn on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah and lasts until the sun sets on the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah. However it is necessary for the validity of the sacrifice that it be done after the Eid prayer on Eid al-Adha. Scholars agree that doing the sacrifice on the first day is more blessed. Albara’ narrated that the Prophet B said, The first thing we begin with on this day (10th of Dhul-Hijjah) is to offer prayer. Then we return and sacrifice the animals. Anyone who does so follows our Sunnah (practice). And anyone who slaughters his animal before praying, his slaughtering would be just for the meat that he offers to his family, and there would be nothing of sacrifice in it". (Muslim, Book 22, #4827(
·        It has to be of a legally acceptable age as specified earlier for Hady.

·        If a man sacrifices a sheep or goat it will suffice as a sacrifice for him and his family. The proof for this is ’Ata’ bin Yaser’s Hadith, in which he said, I asked Abu Ayyub Al Ansari how the sacrifices were in the Prophet's time B. He said, "The man used to sacrifice one sheep on behalf of himself and his family, and they would eat of it and give in charity. Eventually, people started showing off and the matter turned the way you see it now". (Reported by A’Tirmidhi, Malik and Ibn Majah).
·        Seven people can share a sacrifice of a camel or a cow. Jaber said, "We, along with Allah's Messenger B, sacrificed a camel for seven persons and a cow for seven persons.” (Muslim, vol. 2, #3024).
·        It is permissible to eat part of the sacrifice, give part in charity and save the rest. The Prophet B said, "Eat, and feed others and store”. (Muslim, Book 22, #4861).
·        It is Sunnah for the pilgrim who knows how to slaughter to slaughter his sacrifice himself. He should say, ”Bismi-Llah Wa’Llhu Akbar” (In the name of Allah, and Allah is the Greatest). "O Allah! This is on behalf of so and so"—and he says his name. The Prophet B slaughtered a sheep and said, "In the name of Allah and Allah is the Greatest. O Allah! This is on my behalf and on behalf of those who did not offer a sacrifice amongst my nation". (Reported by Abu Dawud and A’Tirmidhi).
·        For anyone who intends to sacrifice, it is amongst the rules of Sacrifice to refrain from shaving or cutting any of his hair and nails when the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah begin till he slaughters his sacrifice. The proof for this is the Prophet's hadith where he said B, "He who has a sacrificial animal with him (whom he intends) to offer as a sacrifice, and enters the month of Dhul-Hijjah, should not get his hair cut or nails trimmed until he has sacrificed the animal”. (Muslim, Book 22, #4873). In another narration, "nor should he take anything off his skin” i.e. by shaving his pubic or armpit hair.
·        The skin of the sacrificial animal may not be sold, but it may be given away in charity.
·        The hired butcher should not be given anything of its meat in return for his labour, but he may be given some meat as a gift. He may also be paid in cash for the job. This is due to the Hadith:The Prophet B ordered me to supervise the slaughtering of a sacrificial camel and to give away its meat and skin in charity and not to give anything of that to the butcher as wages for slaughtering." (Al-Bukhari, vol. 2, #775).
·        Any sacrificial animal that gets a defect after being bought, the defect would render it unacceptable. If the owner can buy another one he should replace it; if he can’t then it would suffice for him.
·  One may not give the price of a sacrificial animal in charity instead of sacrificing the animal itself because this is contrary to the Divine command. Almighty Allah said, "Therefore to your Lord turn in prayer and sacrifice.” [108:2]

Fidyah (Ransom)
Fidyah (compensation or ransom) is an expiation for violating the restrictions of Ihram or leaving any of the duties of Hajj. It is mentioned in the Quranic verse:
(فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ)
"If any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, then a redemption by fast, or a voluntary alms giving, or a ritual sacrifice." [2:196] 
Ibn Abbas narrated that Ka’b bin Ujrah went out for Hajj with the Prophet B and he was suffering from lice on his head. The Messenger of Allah ordered him to shave his head and said to him, "Fast three days, or feed six poor people, two Mudds for each person, or sacrifice a sheep. If you do any of those it will be enough for you."
Therefore, the pilgrim is given the choice between these three options:
1-     Offering a Sacrifice: the minimum that one may sacrifice is one sheep. Anyone who is bound to make a compensation by sacrificing an animal shouldn't eat from it, and if he ate he would have to repeat the compensation. Fidyah should be distributed among the poor people in the Haram (the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah).
2-     Fasting three days: which are preferred to be consecutive days. It is permissible to fast them during the Hajj or on return to home.
3-     Feeding six poor people from Al-Haram (the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah): at a rate of half a Saa‘ (double handful) each.

Reasons for Obligatory Fidyah 
There are two main reasons for Fidyah:
1-    Violating Ihram restrictions:
Fidyah is a kind of expiation made in case there is a violation of the restrictions of Ihram, i.e., doing some act that is prohibited during the state of Ihram
Some restrictions if violated that require Fidyah are:
-      Applying perfumes
-      Covering the head (for men)
-      Covering the face unnecessarily (for women)
-      Clipping nails
-      Cutting or Removing Hair
-      Wearing form-fitting stitched garments (for men)
-      Committing major sins
·        A pilgrim who violates one of the restrictions of Ihram out of ignorance or forgetfulness, nothing will be required of him. Abd Allah bin ‘Amr bin Al ‘Aas narrated: A man came to the Messenger of Allah B and said: "O Allah's Messenger, being ignorant, I shaved before sacrificing." The Messenger of Allah B replied, “Sacrifice, for no harm will come.” Another man came and said, "O Allah's Messenger, being ignorant, I sacrificed before throwing the pebbles.” He replied, “Throw them for no harm will come.” So, he (the Prophet) was not asked about anything on that day without saying “Do it, for no harm will come.” [A'Rabee'# 435]
·        The pilgrim who wears stitched garments, or covers his head before shaving or hair clipping forgetfully, is liable to compensation if he remains like that from night to day or from day to night. Similarly if he continues to wear stitched garments after he remembers and doesn't hasten to take them off. If he hastens to take them off nothing will be required of him.
·        If the pilgrim who has been doing 'Umrah sees blood on his clothes after finishing his Ihram and he doesn't know when he got it, then nothing is required of him.
·        The pilgrim who is required to offer a Fidyah for doing one of the violations of Ihram is given the choice between these three options (i.e. fasting or charity or sacrifice).

2-    Leaving one of the obligatory duties of Hajj
Acts of Hajj comprise three categories:
a.     Pillars that one must perform so as not to invalidate his Hajj, because they cannot be compensated with Fidyah or Dam (i.e. atonement by way of animals' sacrifice required of a pilgrim for a willful violation of a prohibition or obligation while in the ritual state for Hajj and `Umrah).
b.     Obligatory acts that necessitate offering a sacrifice (Dam) if they are not performed, without invalidating one’s Hajj.
c.      Voluntary and recommended acts of Sunnah that complete the pilgrim’s reward.
Some obligatory acts that require offering a sacrificial animal (Dam) are:
-      Ramy (throwing pebbles) before its prescribed time or leaving it until its time is over.
-      Tahallul (termination of the state of Ihram) without shaving or shortening hair.
-      Leaving out staying overnight in Muzdalifah on the night preceding 10th Dhul-Hijjah.
-      Leaving out staying overnight in Mina on the nights of the days of Tashriq.
-      Leaving out Tawaf Al-Wadaa' (Farewell circumambulation)

·        The pilgrim who doesn't stay overnight in Muzdalafah has to offer a sacrificial animal. However, if he stays till moonset, nothing will be required of him.
·        The pilgrim who doesn’t throw pebbles at Al’Aqabah Jamrah has to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        The pilgrim who doesn't perform Sa’y between A’Safa and Al-Marwah after Tawaf of lfadah has to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        The pilgrim who leaves Mina before afternoon on the first departure day (12th Dhul-Hijjah) or on the second (13th Dhul-Hijjah) has to offer a sacrificial animal.

Jazaa (Compensation)
Jazaa is a compensation for hunting or killing land game while in the state of Ihram.
Allah says:
(أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَحْرِ وَطَعَامُهُ مَتَاعاً لَّكُمْ وَلِلسَّيَّارَةِ وَحُرِّمَ عَلَيْكُمْ صَيْدُ الْبَرِّ مَا دُمْتُمْ حُرُماً)
"Permitted to you is the game of the sea and food from it is a provision for you and for the wayfarers; but forbidden to you is the hunting of game on the land, so long as you remain in pilgrimage inviolability" [5:96]

Killing or hunting an animal of the land is one of the restrictions that are not allowed during Ihram. Allah Almighty says:
(يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّداً فَجَزَاء مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ هَدْياً بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَو عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَاماً)
"O you who believe, do not slay game while you are in the state of pilgrimage inviolability; whoever of you kills it intentionally, then the compensation shall be the equivalent of what he has slain, of flocks, to be judged by two just men among you, an offering to reach the Ka’bah. Or, an expiation: food for the poor; or, the equivalent of that in fasting" [5:95]

Based on verse 95 of Surat Al-Ma'idah, whoever kills a hunted wild game animal (e.g. birds, rabbits, gazelles, mastigures, etc.) during the state of Ihram, one of the following three is due upon him:

First: the equivalent, which is that the pilgrim should slaughter animals including camels, cows or sheep, equivalent to the game that he has killed. This is to be judged by two just men. The ‘equivalent’ animals should be slaughtered and its flesh be distributed among the poor of Al-Haram (the Sacred Sanctuary).

Second: feeding, which is to evaluate the equivalent of the game’s value ( by two just men) and buy with its price foodstuff to be distributed to the poor and needy, at a rate of half a Saa‘ (double handful) each.

Third: fasting, which is to estimate the number of the needy to be fed according to the second case, and then fast that number of days.
The majority of scholars hold that as far as the penalty is concerned there is no difference between one who deliberately kills a game and he who does so forgetfully or mistakenly. What is probably correct is that it is not a sin (to kill a game animal mistakenly or forgetfully) and there is no sacrifice due upon the person who forgot or did so due to ignorance. This is due to Allah's Statement:
(وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّداً)
"And whoever of you kills it (the game animal) intention­ally." [5: 95]

Matters that would invalidate Hajj (Mufsidat Al Hajj)
It is an obligation to complete Hajj after having entered Ihram. Hajj cannot be completed unless all its pillars are fulfilled. Allah Almighty says:
(وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ)
"And complete the Hajj and ’Umrah in the service of Allah."[2:196]
However, there are matters that would invalidate Hajj (Mufsidat of Hajj) and cannot be compensated for by sacrifice. These matters could be divided into the following points:
A)    Missing one of the conditions of validity. These are:
-      Miqat Zamani (time limit):
Assuming Ihram for Hajj before the months of Hajj invalidates Hajj. So whoever does that he has to rectify his Ihram by reassuming it in the months of Hajj.
-      Islam:
Apostasy invalidates Hajj. A person who apostatizes and then repents to Allah and returns to Islam has to reassume Ihram for Hajj before the time for standing in Arafah is over. If he missed the standing at Arafah by failing to stand there until the dawn of the Day of Nahr broke, then he has missed the Hajj of that year. He should perform Hajj in the next year.

B)    Leaving out one of the pillar of Hajj. The pillars are:
-      Ihram
-      Standing in Arafah
-      Tawaf of Ifadah
-      S'ay
Whoever left out one of these pillars until the time is over has to repent to Allah first and then he has to offer Dam Al Fawat (i.e. a sacrifice of a camel or a cow for missing an obligatory rite of Hajj or violating restrictions). And he is obliged to complete the remaining rites of Hajj; also he must repeat the Hajj in the immediate following year."

C)    Sexual intercourse
The pilgrim who discharges semen deliberately while in lhram or has sexual intercourse with his wife, his Hajj or 'Umrah becomes invalid and he has to offer a sacrifice of a camel or a cow.
If a pilgrim in a state of Ihram had sexual intercourse with his spouse or masturbates before standing in Arafah, then his Hajj will be null and void. However, he can still renew Ihram again and continue performing the rites of Hajj, but he must repent to Allah and slaughter a camel or a cow.
But if he did so after standing in Arafah and before Tawaf Al Ifadah, his Hajj will be invalidated. After repentance to Allah, he must continue the performance of Hajj rites till the end, but must also make it up the following year, and besides, must also offer a sacrifice of a camel or a cow. 

'Umrah is often referred to as "Al-Hajj Al-Asghar" i.e. “the minor pilgrimage” to distinguish it from the Hajj which is the yearly pilgrimage and one of the five pillars of Islam. . Basically, 'Umrah is similar to Hajj, except that it can be practiced throughout the year, but it does not have to happen at any particular time of year, and certain restrictions do not apply. Although not equivalent to the Hajj, it nevertheless is a source of great blessings, particularly if performed during Ramadan.

In Arabic, the word "'Umrah" is derived from "I'timaar" which means "visitation". However, "'Umrah" in Islamic terminology, means visiting the Holy Mosque in Makkah and performing certain rituals such as Ihram, Tawaf (circumambulating around Ka’bah), Sa'y (going back and forth between A'Safa and Al-Marwah), and shaving or shortening hair.

Ruling on 'Umrah
There is consensus among scholars that 'Umrah is a prescribed worship and is an act of virtue. Allah SWT says:
(وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ)
"Fulfil the Hajj (Pilgrimage) and the 'Umrah (Visitation) to Allah; but if you are prevented, then [give] such offering as may be feasible, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its place. If any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, then a redemption by fast, or a voluntary almsgiving, or a ritual sacrifice. When you are secure, then whoever enjoys the Visitation, until the Pilgrimage;" [2:196]
Aisha, the mother of the believer, narrated that the Messenger of Allah B said: "Whoever has the Hady with him should assume Ihram for Hajj along with `Umrah and should not finish the Ihram till he completed them (both Hajj and 'Umrah)."  [A'Rabee'#438]
However, scholars differed as to whether it is obligatory. A big group of scholars are of the view that it is Sunnah Muakkadah (i.e. an act that Prophet Muhammad B always used to do), but not obligatory. But there is another big group of scholars hold it to be obligatory (wajiba).
The majority of Ibadhi scholars are of the opinion that 'Umrah is obligatory (wajiba), which means that the one who does it is rewarded and the one who leaves it is punished
The reason of this difference in opinion occurs because of their difference in the interpretation of the words of Allah [Qur'an 2.196] "Fulfil the Hajj (Pilgrimage) and the 'Umrah (Visitation) to Allah." The scholars also differ about the authenticity of some Hadiths and narrations and their interpretations.

Some Virtues of 'Umrah
The virtues of 'Umrah are many, and below are just some of the virtues mentioned about 'Umrah.
1.     Performing ‘Umrah after ‘Umrah will erase the sins committed between them. Abu Hurairah narrated that Allah's Messenger B said, "An 'Umrah is a means of expiation of sins committed between it and the next and a Hajj Mabroor (the one accepted by Allah) has no reward for it but Paradise." [A'Rabee' #443]
2.     Keep on doing Hajj and ‘Umrah protects one from poverty and removes sins. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Alternate between Hajj and 'Umrah; for those two remove poverty and sins just as the bellows removes filth from iron, gold, and silver - and there is no reward for Al-Hajj Al-Mabroor except for Paradise." (Al-Tirmidhi #738)
3.     Those who make the pilgrimage for the Hajj or 'Umrah are the guests of the Compassionate. The Messenger of Allah B said: "Those who make the pilgrimage for the Hajj or 'Umrah are the guests of Allah. The petitions they make will be granted and if they seek deliverance from sins, their sins will be forgiven." [Ibn Majah #2883] 

Time for 'Umrah
'Umrah can be performed at any time during the year, except on the Day of 'Arafah (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah), the Day of Nahr (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah), and the three days of Tashriq (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah).
The best time to perform 'Umrah is during the month of Ramadan. The Prophet B said to Om Sinan, a woman of the Ansar: "So when the month of Ramadhan come, perform 'Umrah, for 'Umrah in this (month) is equal to Hajj (in reward)." [Muslim #2201]

It is also preferred to perform 'Umrah during the month of Dhul-Qa'dah as to follow the example of the Prophet B.  Anas ibn Malik reported that Allah's Messenger B performed four 'Umrahs, all during the month of Dhul-Qa'dah except the one he performed along with Hajj (and these are): the 'Umrah that he performed from Al-Hudaibiah or during the time of (the truce of) Al-Hudaibiah in the month of Dhul-Qa'dah, then the 'Umrah of the next year in the month of Dhul-Qa'dah, then the 'Umrah for which he had started from Al-Ju'ranah, the place where he distributed the spoils of (the battle of) Hunain in the month of Dhul-Qa'dah, and then the 'Umrah that he performed along with his Hajj (on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage). [Related by Muslim]


Conditions of 'Umrah

All the conditions of Umrah are divided into three categories these are:

A)   Condition of acceptance:
-         Taqwa; which is a high state of heart, which keeps one conscious of Allah's presence and His Knowledge, and it motivates him to perform righteous deeds and avoid those, which are forbidden.
B)   Conditions of obligation (according to the view that it is an obligation):
-         Sanity
-         Maturity
-         Freedom
-         Istita'ah (Ability)
-         The availability of Mahram for a women
C)   Conditions of validity:
-         Islam
-      Miqat Zamani (time limit): Any time during the year, except on the Day of 'Arafah, the Day of Nahr, and the three days of Tashriq.

Pillars of 'Umrah
A)   Ihram (ritual consecration).
B)   Tawaf (circumambulation) of the House.
C)    Sa'y between A'Safa and Al-Marwah.
Tawaf of the House is the major pillar of 'Umrah; also as previously mentioned that standing at 'Arafat is the major pillar of Hajj.

Obligations of 'Umrah (Sunan Wajiba)
A)   Ihram from Al-Hill, which is the area outside the Haram, the holy land on which the City of Makkah stands.
B)   Termination of Ihram by Shaving or clipping the hair.
C)    Tawaf to farewell the house

Mufsidat of 'Umrah (Matters that would invalidate 'Umrah)
'Umrah is invalidated by:
D)   Missing one of the conditions of validity (i.e. Islam and Miqat Zamani)
E)     Leaving out one of the three pillars of 'Umrah (i.e Ihram, Tawaf, and Sa'y). These cannot be compensated for by Dam (Sacrifice).

Types of 'Umrah
There are three ways in which 'Umrah can be performed:
1)     Ifrad, which means to assume Ihram for 'Umrah alone (without Hajj). The pilgrim utters Talbiyah by saying, "Labayka Umrah or labayka be Umrah."
2)     Tamattu', which means to assume the state of Ihram for 'Umrah in the months of Hajj. The pilgrim utters the Talbiyah of Umrah by saying, "Labayka Umrah or labayka be Umrah." And he performs all rites of 'Umrah and then ends Ihram upon finishing 'Umrah. Then the pilgrim assumes Ihram for Hajj in the same year without returning home. He recites the Talbiyah by saying, "Labayka Hajja or Labayka be Hajja." He performs all the rites of Hajj and terminates Ihram upon finishing Hajj activities.
3)     Qiran, which means to assume Ihram for Hajj and 'Umrah together in one Ihram. The pilgrim utters Talbiyah by saying, "Labayka Umrah wa Hajja." or "Labayka be Umrah wa Hajja." He Performs the rituals of the 'Umrah and then the Hajj together, in one Ihram and maintains Ihram until both Hajj and 'Umrah are completed together on the Day of Sacrifice (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah).

How to Perform ’Umrah

·        Having a ritual wash (ghusl) for ihraam and performing ablution are preferable.
·        Praying the two-rak’a sunnah prayer for Ihram. If it is time for the obligatory prayer then this prayer is sufficient. Making Talbiyah in which he recites, labbayka’llahumma labbayk. Labbayka la shareeka laka labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-ni'mata laka wal-mulk. la shareeka lak”. (I respond to Your call O Allah, I respond to Your call. I am obedient to Your orders, You have no partner, I respond to Your call. All praise, blessings and sovereignty belong to You, You have no partner). He sometimes adds,”Labbayka bi’umrah” (I respond to Your call for Umrah). The pilgrim continues to chant Talbiyah till he enters the Sacred Mosque. It is preferable to enter from the A’Salam (peace) door saying, "O Allah! You are the peace, from You comes peace, and to You returns peace. Make us live with peace, and make us enter paradise the home of peace. Blessed be You our Lord, O Possessor of majesty and honor!
·        When the pilgrim sees the Sacred House (Ka’bah) he says "O Allah! Give this House of Yours more glory and glorification, and more reverence and honoring, and give whoever visits it in Hajj or ’Umrah more guidance and blessing, and more righteousness and piety
·        Tawaf starts by kissing the Black Stone if possible, otherwise touching it and kissing the hand or just pointing to it suffices. Then the pilgrim performs tawaf keeping the Sacred House on his left and repeats Al- baqiyat A’salihat saying thus: Subhana’llah, Walhamdulillah, Wala Ilaha Illa’llah, Wallahu Akbar, Wala Hawla Wala Quwwata Illa Billah”. He also makes any kind of du’a’ he wishes.
·        When he reaches the Yemeni Corner, he should touch it if possible and say,Rabbana aatina fid’dunya hasanatan, wafil-akhirati hasanatan, waqina adhaban’nar”, meaning: "Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and defend us from the torment of the Hell fire”. Then he repeats the same steps till tawaf is finished.
·        Praying two rak’as behind the Station of Ibrahim and making any kind of du’a’.
·        Drinking from Zamzam Water and splashing some on the face and the head.
·        Heading for A’Safa and when he has climbed it he should make Takbir (Allahu Akbar) three or seven times. Then he recites, “La ilaha illa ’LLahu wahdahu la sharika lahu, lahul—mulku walahul-hamdu wahuwa ala kulli shay-in qadir, La ilaha illa LLahu wahdah, anjaza wa’dah, wanasara abdah, wahazamal-ahzaaba wahdah”, meaning: “There is nothing worthy of worship but Allah alone; He has no partner. His is the kingdom, to Him is due all praise, and He is powerful over all things. There is nothing worthy of worship but Allah alone. He has fulfilled his promise, brought victory to His servant and defeated the gangs all by Himself”. He then prays for the Prophet B to be blessed and granted salvation and makes any kind of du’a’ he wishes.
·        Descending towards Al-Marwah saying while walking "O Allah! Make this Walk atonement for every walk You disliked and disapproved of me” and making any kind of du’a’ he wishes.
·        When he reaches the green light signal he should hasten his walk till he reaches the next signal saying, "My Lord! Forgive, have mercy, and overlook what You know! You are the Most High, the Supreme. You are the Most Generous, You are the Lord, and You are the Judge.” Then he walks unhurriedly again till he reaches Al-Marwah where he does the same as he did at A’Safa, and so forth till the end of seven laps.
·        Tahallul (Finishing Ihram), which is shaving or cutting short the hair.

·        Performing ’Umrah is obligatory due to His saying, Exalted is He, "And complete the Hajj or ’Umrah in the service of Allah” [2:196]. Also due to the Prophet's sayings which stated literally that 'Umrah is as mandatory as Hajj.
·        Anyone who wishes to perform 'Umrah after Hajj should not perform it during the Days of Tashriq (11th, 12th, and 13th Dhul-Hijjah) but from 14th and on.
·        'Umrah can never be a substitute for Hajj no matter how many times it is done. One simply must carry out the duty of Hajj if one has the capability.
·        Umrah may be done repeatedly except in the months of Hajj.

Hiring for Hajj and ’Umrah
·        Performing Hajj or 'Umrah on behalf of a live capable person is not permissible unless the Hajj or 'Umrah is a voluntary extra one; and this is yet debatable.
·        Scholars have regarded it acceptable to take payment for going on 'Umrah on behalf of others. However, to be more cautious is not to take on such a commitment due to the risks it involves, as shortcomings and imperfections are inevitable.
·        The necessary conditions for the one who is hired to perform Hajj are trustworthiness, knowledge and ability to carry out the rituals satisfactorily.
·        The Sunnah (Prophet's Sayings) implies impermissibility of a person going on Hajj on behalf of another before performing Hajj on his own behalf, and how sufficient a proof the Sunnah is! There are some scholars, however, who are allowing that for those in need, but the former opinion is more cautious for being in conformity with the Sunnah.

Fatwas (formal legal opinionsrelating to women
·        A woman may not go on Hajj or 'Umrah without a mahram (a man who she cannot marry, such as a father, brother, uncle etc). However, if she doesn't have a mahram she is allowed - according to some scholars - only for her obligatory Hajj, to go in the company of pious men who are going with their women (wives or mahrams).
·        If a woman menstruates before she performs the 'Umrah tawaf, and her intention has been to perform Hajj Tamattu’, and her period doesn't finish before the Day of Tarwiyah (8th Dhul-Hijjah), she will make intention to perform Hajj Qiran and combine Hajj with ’Umrah. In this case one Tawaf and one say would suffice her for both her Hajj and her ’Umrah.
·        The conditions of Hajj for a woman are not different from those for a man, except that there is one more condition for her, namely, she has to be accompanied by her husband or a mahram man, for she is forbidden to travel on her own.
·        It is not necessary for a female pilgrim to pray in the two Holy Mosques. That is preferable for her only when she can avoid crowding with men and if she isn't the kind of a woman who is alluring to men (causing fitnah). If these two conditions are missing, it is better for her to pray at home in her lodging.
·        A woman doesn't have to wear any special clothes for Hajj. Also changing her clothes doesn't affect her Ihram.
·        Scholars have different views with regard to women visiting the graves of the companions of the Prophet B and of the Prophet's family. Permission is conditional on that their visiting be aimed at learning a lesson from death, and unaccompanied with wailing or any other misconduct.
·        It is not permissible for a woman to cover her face during Hajj or 'Umrah. If she covers it intentionally she will have to offer a sacrificial animal. If by mistake or forgetfully she must uncover it as soon as she remembers. She is also not allowed to wear gloves during Hajj or ’Umrah.
·        A woman has to cut from the tips of her hair a length of two or four fingers measured widthways when she finishes Ihram. If she finishes her Ihram without doing that she will have to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        It is permissible for a woman to hire someone to throw pebbles at the Jamrats on her behalf if necessary.
·        A woman may take the pill to prevent the onset of her period during Hajj and 'Umrah.
·        If a Woman learns of her husband's death while she is performing Hajj, she will have to complete her Hajj rituals. She is not allowed to stop her Hajj after she has assumed the state of Ihram.

1.  The Approved in the Jurisprudence of Hajj and 'Umrah (Al Mu'atamad), by Al Mu'tasam Al Ma'awali.
2.      This is Hajj (Pilgrimage), by Nasser Yusuf Al Azri.

3.      Al-Hajj Al-Mabroor, by Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs.


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