Wednesday, September 4, 2013

Hajj (Pilgrimage) Jurisprudence (Part 3)

This part discusses the rituals of Hajj; starting from proceeding to Mina (on the day of Tarwiyah) till Tawaf Al-Wadaa' or Farewell Circumambulation (i.e. circumambulation around the Ka`bah on leaving Makkah).

Rules of the Day of Tarwiyah (8th Dhul-Hijjah)
·        The day of Tarwiyah is the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja. It is highly recommended (Sunnah Wajibah) in this day to proceed to Mina.
= The pilgrim doing Hajj Qiran or Ifrad directly proceeds to Mina in his Ihram.
= The pilgrim doing Hajj Tamattu’ has first to resume Ihram for Hajj. He should do the following:
§  It is preferable for him to have a ritual wash and perform ablution.
§  It is preferable for him to perform two rak'as after bathing and putting on the Ihram garments.
§  He should enter into Ihram for Hajj from his lodging or any other place in the Haram (the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah).
§  He should make Niyyah (intention) for Hajj, read Talbiyah and keep reading as much as possible. He should articulate his intention by saying: "Labayka Hajja or Labayka be Hajja".He can then proceed to Mina. 
·        Repeated chanting of Talbiyah and du'a’ on the way to Mina and while he is there.

Hajj Pilgrims' Tents outside Mina

·        The pilgrim prays in Mina all the five prayers: Dhuhr, ’Asr, Maghrib, ’Isha and Fajr of the 9th day, shortening the four-rak’a prayers to two rak’as. It is narrated in an authentic hadith that the Prophet B went to Mina on the Day of Tarwiyah and prayed the five prayers there, beginning with Dhuhr. (Al-Bukhari, vol. 2 #715). Offering each prayer individually in its time is preferable to combining two prayers.
·        Staying overnight in Mina is an obligatory prophetic practice (Sunnah Wajibah). The pilgrim who doesn't stay overnight in Mina has to offer a sacrificial animal for compensation. However, those who don't stay with valid excuses are not liable to any compensation, but lose the great reward. The evidence for that is the Hadith of 'Urwah bin Mudharris, who said, "I came to the Apostle of Allah B (in Muzdalafah) and said: 'I have come from the two mountains of Tayy. I fatigued my mount and tired myself. I left no mountain (on my way) but I halted there. Have I got any Hajj?' The Apostle of Allah B said: 'Anyone who offers the dawn prayer along with us and comes over to Arafat before it, may cast away the dirt (of his body) and his Hajj will be completed.” (Abu Dawud, bk. 10, #1945).

Mina at Night
·        It is permissible for the one who has assumed the state of ihram for Hajj to move to Mina on the Day of Tarwiyah in the morning or afternoon. But he is recommended to pray all the five prayers in Mina so as to follow the example of the Prophet B.
·        It is permissible to assume the state of ihram for Hajj before the Day of Tarwiyah, and to be in Mina the night preceding the Day of Tarwiyah. However, the prophetic practice (Sunnah) in this connexion is what has been mentioned previously.

Wuquf Arafah (The Standing in Arafah)
The 9th day of the month of Dhul-Hijja is called the Day of Arafah. It is the day during which Hajj pilgrims gather at the mount of Arafat praying and supplicating to Allah Almighty.

Hajj becomes valid only when the day of Arafah is observed and witnessed by those who undertake the journey, the pilgrims. Regardless how long the pilgrims stay in Makkah, if they missed that single day, they have then missed the whole Hajj.

The Juristic Ruling on Wuquf Arafah (The standing in Arafah)
Wuquf in Arafah is the second pillar or integral rite of Hajj. However, it is not a pillar in the performance of ‘Umrah.
There is conclusive evidence from the Quran, the Sunnah (Hadith), and consensus on the standing being a pillar of Hajj.
As regards evidence from the Quran, Allah the Almighty Says:
فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ))
"But when you press on from ‘Arafat"[2:189]; and He also says:
(ثُمَّ أَفِيضُواْ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ)
"Then press on from where the people press on"[2:199]

Concerning evidence from the Sunnah, there are many Hadiths, the most famous of which is: "Hajj is Arafah." The Messenger of Allah B said so when people came to him and asked him about hajj. He replied them by saying: 'Hajj is Arafah.' [An-Nasa'i # 2966]
Also a number of scholars declared consensus on this issue. Ibn Al-Monthir said: "They (the scholars) unanimously agreed that standing in Arafah is fardh (an obligation) and there is no Hajj for one who misses standing in it." [Al-Ijmaa' by Ibn Al-Monthir]
It is not valid to authorize another person to stand at ‘Arafah on one’s behalf. 

Al-Rahma Mountain, Arafat

Al-Rahma Mountain, Arafat
The Importance and the Virtues of the Day of Arafah
·        Arafah is the last day of the first ten days of the month of Dhul-Hijjah. Allah, the Almighty, swore an oath by these days and swearing an oath by something is indicative of its importance and great benefit. Allah says:

(وَالْفَجْرِ ((1 وَلَيَالٍ عَشْرٍ (2))
"By the dawn and ten nights" [89:1-2]

·        It is the day on which the religion of Islam was perfected and Allah’s Favour was completed. Allah says:
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الإِسْلاَمَ دِيناً))
"Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My favour upon you, and I have approved Islam for you as religion."[5:3]
It was said that the Prophet's she-camel knelt down when this verse was revealed.

·        It is a day of Eid and happiness for the Muslims. It was narrated from Uqbah bin Amir that the Messenger of Allah B said: "The day of Arafat and the day of sacrifice and the day of Tashriq are our Eid, the people of Islam, and they are days of eating and drinking."[ An-Nasa'i # 2954]
'Umar ibn Al-Khattab narrated that: 'Once a Jew said to me, "O the chief of believers! There is a verse in your Holy Book which is read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we would have taken that day (on which it was revealed as a day of celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that verse?" The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as your religion." (5:3) 'Umar replied, "No doubt, we know when and where this verse was revealed to the Prophet. It was Friday and the Prophet B was standing at 'Arafah (i.e. the Day of Hajj).' [Related by Bukhari]

·    Allah frees slaves from the fire on Arafah more than any other day. The Messenger of Allah B said, "There is no day on which Allah sets free more slaves from Hell than He does on the Day of 'Arafah." [Muslim #2402]

·        Allah expresses His pride to His angels about the pilgrims stationed in Arafah on this day. It was reported that the Prophet B said: “Allah expresses His pride to His angels at the time of ‘Isha on the Day of Arafah, about the people of Arafah. He says, ‘Look at My slaves who have come unkempt and dusty... from every deep ravine. Bear witness that I have forgiven them.’”  [Related by Ahmad]

·        On the day of Arafah, Satan will be belittled and humiliated more than any other day of the year. He will be humiliated when he sees how much Allah forgives His servants. The Messenger of Allah B said, "Satan is not considered more abased or more cast out or more contemptible or more angry on any day than on the Day of Arafah. That is only because he sees the descent of the Mercy and Allah's disregard for great wrong actions." [Malik #840]

·        Supplication (du'a') on the Day of Arafah is the best supplication and its remembrance (dhikr) is the best remembrance. The Messenger of Allah B said:  "The most excellent supplication (du'a') is the supplication on the Day of Arafah, and the best of what I and the prophets before me have said, is 'There is no god but Allah, alone, without partner.'" [Malik # 449] 

·        Fasting on the day of Arafah is expiation for two years. It is highly recommended (mustahab) for non-pilgrims to fast during this day for the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was asked about fasting on the day of Arafah, so he said, It expiates the sins of the preceding year and the coming year." [Related by Muslim] This (fasting) is mustahab for those who are not on Hajj. In the case of the one who is on Hajj, it is not Sunnah for him to fast on the Day of ‘Arafah, because the Prophet B did not fast on this day in ‘Arafah. It was narrated by Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri that he forbade fasting on the Day of ‘Arafah in ‘Arafah.  Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri said: 'Some people argued near Um Al-Fadhl bint Al-Harith, and she is the mother of Abdullah ibn Al-Abbas, On the day of Arafah about the fasting of the Messenger of Allah B. Some said that he was fasting while others said that he was not fasting.' Abu Sa'id said: 'So she sent a cup of milk to him while he was riding his camel and he drank it.' [A'Rabee' #314&420]

The Meaning and Site of Wuquf Arafah (Standing in Arafah)
In the religious sense, "Wuquf Arafah" (Standing in Arafah) is defined as being present at any place within the borders of ‘Arafah during the prescribed time for Wuquf (from afternoon till sunset).

 Arafah and Arafat: is a name of mountain and adjacent plain about 25 km east of Makkah. It is valid to stand on any portion of the plain of 'Arafat because the Prophet B said: " I stationed here and the whole of ‘Arafah is the place of station." [Abu Dawud #1630]

It is very important to avoid standing at the valley of Uranah (to the west of Arafah) as it is not part of the land of Arafah. The Messenger of Allah B said: "All of ‘Arafat is the place of standing, but keep away from the interior of ‘Uranah." [Malik #772]

Scholars have stated that the pilgrimage of anyone who erroneously stood outside the plain of ‘Arafah is invalid.

Rules of 9th Dhul-Hijjah (Standing in ’Arafah [or ’Arafat])
·        The pilgrim leaves Mina on the 9th day after sunrise and heads for ’Arafaat chanting Takbir (Allahu Akbar), Tahlil (La ilaha illa Allah) and Talbiyah.
·        It is Mustahab (preferable) to stay at Namirah until noon if it is possible. 
·        When he arrives at ’Arafah and the sun is past meridian (early afternoon), he listens to the sermon of the Imam and then combines Dhuhr and ’Asr prayers at the earliest time shortening them to two rak’as each, with one Athan and two Iqamahs.
·        The time of Wuquf begins from the afternoon and continues till sunset. The Messenger of Allah said: "The people of polytheism and idols used to depart from Arafat when the sun was still seen on the top of the mountains like turbans on men's faces. And they used to depart from Muzdalifah when the sun raised on the top of the mountains like turbans on men's faces. And we do not depart from Arafat before sunset and the fasting person breaks his fast. And we depart from Muzdalifah tomorrow - if Allah wills - before sunrise. Indeed, our way is different from that of the people of polytheism and idols." [A'Rabee' #422]
Arafat Mosque
·        It is preferable that the pilgrim has a ritual wash (ghusl) in Mina with the intention of standing in ’Arafah.
·        Taharah (ritual purity) is not a condition for Wuquf (Standing in ’Arfah).
·        It is Sunnah (a prophetic practice) to intensely engage in supplication (du’a’) and invocation (dhikr) to Allah after Dhuhr and 'Asr prayers up to sunset.
·        The pilgrim may not leave ‘Arafat for Muzdalafah till sunset. lbadhi scholars insist that the pilgrim should not leave his place to another before sunset with the intention of starting Ifadah (pouring out of ’Arfaat),  and they regard this as Ifadah even if he doesn't cross the borders of ’Arafah until after sunset.
·     Most of lbadhi and Maliki scholars agree that Ifadah before sunset invalidates Hajj. However, other scholars say doing so would only require offering a sacrificial animal.
·        The pilgrim who starts moving from his place in ’Arafah towards its borders before sunset has to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        The pilgrim is recommended to make du’a’s (supplications) transmitted from the Prophet B as well as Talbiyah in ’Arafah. Chanting of the Talbiyah is just as good, so the pilgrim ought not to stop it till he stones the Jamrah (i.e. the largest pillar) on the Day of Sacrifice.
·        By common consent, the pilgrim who manages to stand in ’Arafat before sunset for as long as he can recite al-baqiyat a’salihat (the everlasting good works) has accomplished the stand at ’Arafat. Al-baqiyat a’salihat in this context refers to praises of Almighty Allah said thus:
Subhana’llah, Wal-hamdu lil'Llah, Wala Ilaha Illa’llah, Wa’Llahu Akbar, Wala Hawla Wala Quwwata Illa Bi’Llah”.
·  Scholars have differed regarding the one who stands in ’Arafat during the night preceding the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah. The formal legal opinion (fatwa) is that the pilgrim who catches up with standing in Arafat by day or by night and then stands in Muzdalafah on the night preceding the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah and catches up with Fajr prayer therein, has caught up with Hajj. The well-known basis for this ruling is the Hadith of 'Urwah bin Mudharris, who said:" I came to the Apostle of Allah B (in Muzdalafah) and said: 'I have come from the two mountains of Tayy. I fatigued my mount and tired myself. I left no mountain (on my way) but I halted there. Have I got any Hajj?' The Apostle of Allah B said: 'Anyone who offers the dawn prayer along with us and comes over to Arafat before it, may cast away the dirt (of his body) and his Hajj will be completed.” (Abu Dawud, bk. 10, #1945).
·        It is Sunnah (prophetic practice) to pour out of ’Arafat (making Ifadah) calmly due to his saying B on making Ifadah, "O people! Be quiet. Hastening is not a sign of righteousness” (Al Bukhari, vol. 2, #731).

Sunan (Prophetic Practices) of 10th Dhul-Hijjah
The tenth day of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of Eid Al-Adh'ha, is the greatest day of Hajj. It is called as Yawm Al-Nahr (the day of slaughtering the sacrifice), since it marks the ending of the major rites of Hajj. It is also called Yawm Al-Hajj Al-Akbar (the greatest day of Hajj) because most Hajj rites take place on that day. These are (in order as mentioned in the Sunnah): departure from Arafah, delaying Maghrib and 'Isha prayers until Muzdalifah is reached, staying overnight in Muzdalifah, offering Al-Fajr prayer at an early time, remembering Allah at Al-Mash'ar Al-Haraam, passing through the valley of Muhassir before sunrise, stop chanting Talbiyah at Al-Aqabah Jamrah, stoning of Al-Aqabah Jamrah, offering the sacrifice, shaving the head, and departure to Makkah.

Muzdalifah at Night
Rules of the Night preceding 10th Dhul-Hijjah
As we know that in Islam the day starts after Maghrib (sunset). Therefore, the following rules are of the night preceding 10th Dhul-Hijjah:
·        It is Sunnah wajiba (obligatory Sunnah) to departure from Araft to Muzdalifah. However, the pilgrim may not leave till sunset.
·        It is Sunnah to combine Maghrib and ’Isha prayers in Muzdalifah. When the Prophet B came to Muzdalifah he combined Maghrib and ’Isha prayers with one adhaan (call for prayer) and two Iqamats (second call for prayer), and he didn't offer any other prayer between these two. Some people do not pray Maghrib and ‘Isha’ until they reach Muzdalifah, even if the time for ‘Isha’ has ended. This is not permissible because "time" is a condition for the validity of prayer.
·   Staying overnight in Muzdalifah after leaving ’Arafat is Sunnah wajiba (obligatory Sunnah). Muzdalifah is a plain between Mina and Arafat. It is also called Jama' as it is a place where people gather (Ijtima'). It is also Al-Mash'ar Al-Haraam as it refers to a mountain (used to be) in Muzdalifah called Quzah. And it was said that Muzdalifah as a whole is Mash'ar Haraam.
·        The pilgrim may stand in any part of Muzdalifah except the valley of Muhassir. The Prophet B said, "One may stand in any part of Muzdalifah except Muhassir” (Reported by Ahmed). Muhassir is a valley between Muzdalifah and Mina but nearer to Muzdalifah.
·        Women, children and herdsmen are permitted to leave Muzdalifah by night after moonset.
·        Repeating praises of Allah at Al-Mash’ar Al-Haraam (the space between the two mountains of Muzdalifah) is obligatory (Sunnah wajiba). It is sufficient to say any du'a’ or Tahlil (la ilaha illa’llah) or Tahmeed (alhamduli'Llah) or Talbiyah. If the pilgrim doesn't do any of these he will have to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        The pilgrim should not stay up on the night of Muzdalifah praying qiyam Al-layl as this is contrary to the Sunnah

Rules of 10th Dhul-Hijjah
·        When the time of the Fajr (dawn) prayer is due, the pilgrim should perform the Fajr prayer early with one adhaan (call for prayer) and Iqamah (second call for prayer). 
·        Before sunrise, the pilgrims leave Muzdalifah tor Mina, but when they pass through the valley called Muhassir, they should pass it at a quicker pace.
·        The pilgrim ought to cross the valley of Muhassir before sunrise unless he is forced to delay.
·        When the pilgrim reaches Mina he throws pebbles at Al-’Aqabah Jamrah, which is the largest Jamrah (stone pillar).
·        The pilgrim should throw seven small pebbles the size of a chickpea.
Seven Pebbles
How to throw the pebbles:
·        Throwing at Al-’Aqabah Jamrah is from the middle of the valley, with Makkah on your left and Mina on your right. The seven pebbles must be thrown individually and the pilgrim recites Takbir (Allahu Akbar) on throwing each one. Ibn ’Umar said that the Prophet B said ‘Allahu-Akbar’ on throwing every pebble. [Al Bukhari, vol. 2, #138]
·        Throwing starts after sunrise on the Day of Eid (the Feast, i.e. 10th Dhul-Hijjah) till the afternoon. Al-’Aqabah Jamrah should not be thrown before sunrise. The Prophet B advanced the weak among his family and he said: 'Do not stone the Jamrah until the sun has risen.'" [At-Tirmidhi #817]
There is a concession, however, for the weak ones among men, women and children (and their company) to throw pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah in the night. It is permissible for them to leave Muzdalifah and go to Mina after midnight and before the dawn of Eid Al-Adh'ha to throw Jamarah Al-Aqabah.
There is also another view endorsed by some scholars who hold that the permission to throw at night applies to women only; it does not apply to men, whether strong or weak. This opinion is based on the practice of Asma bint Abu Bakr when she threw the stone at Al-Jamrah after moonset. She then prayed Fajr prayer in her place. She said, "Allah's Apostle B had granted permission to women." [Related by Muslim]
·        It is permitted to extend the time till sunset if necessary and for the pilgrims with special needs.
·        The pilgrim stops chanting Talbiyah when he starts throwing at Al-’Aqabah Jamrah according to Al Fadl bin ’Abbas, who said, "I still heard the Prophet performing Talbiyah till he threw (pebbles) at Al-’Aqabah Jamrah.” [An-Nasai' # 3030].
Al-Jamarat Bridge

Al-Aqabah Jamrah

·        Stoning Al-’Aqabah Jamrah is done on the Day of Sacrifice from after sunrise onwards, and stoning all the three Jamrahs is done on the days of Tashriq from early afternoon onwards.
·        It is not sufficient to tie up the pebbles in a bag and throw them together. Each pebble must be thrown individually.
·        It is permissible for the pilgrim to ask someone to throw the pebbles on his behalf, if he can't do it himself.
·        The pilgrim has to ensure that the pebbles reach the Jamrah otherwise the throw is not counted. It is acceptable however if the pebbles fall in the basin.

Hady (Sacrificial Animal)
·        After stoning Al-’Aqabah Jamrah, the pilgrim slaughters his Hady (sacrificial animal) to follow the example of the Prophet B.
·        Sacrificing an animal (Hady) is a part of Hajj in Shariah (Islamic Ruling) of Mohammad (PBUH). The Messenger of Allah B was asked: "Which Hajj is the most virtuous?" He said: "That with raised voices (Al-'Ajj) and the flow of blood (of the sacrifice) (Ath-Thajj)." [At-Termidhi #757] It is a reflection of specific Sunnah (practice) of Hajj from Abraham (PBUH). It was one of the major trials of Abraham when he was commanded by Allah to kill his own son, i.e. Ishmael. A task which would seem impossible for most was taken up by Abraham keen to prove himself to his Lord. Allah Says [meaning of which is]: "And when he was old enough to walk with him, he said, ‘O my dear son, I see in a dream that I shall sacrifice you. So see what you think’. He said, ‘O my father do whatever you have been commanded. You shall find me, Allah willing, of the steadfast’. And when they had both submitted, and he had laid him down on his forehead, We called to him, ‘O Abraham! Verily you have fulfilled the vision’. So do We reward those who are virtuous. Truly this was indeed a clear test’. Then We ransomed him with a mighty sacrifice."[37:102-107]

·        "Sawq Al-Hady" is among the Sunnah (practice) of the Prophet (PBUH) which he ordered his companions to follow. It means to lead the sacrificial animal ahead so that if anyone saw the pilgrims from afar, they would realize that these were pilgrims and not warriors; therefore, not causing for concern. This practice involves Ish'aar and Taqleed of the sacrificial animal.
"Ish‘aar Al-Hady" means stabbing the side of the camel's hump, thus making it bleed and marking it with its blood to announce it as a sacrificial animal. This Hady is a camel which is slaughtered and offered in the Sacred Precincts.
"Taqleed Al-Hady" in the other hand means to fasten a piece of leather or the like around the neck of an animal to declare it to be a sacrificial animal. This Hady is livestock (camel, cow or sheep) slaughtered as a sacrificial animal in the Sacred Precincts.
·        Scholars agreed that the pilgrim who performs Hajj Ifrad doesn't have to offer a Hady and that offering a Hady is obligatory for the pilgrim who performs Hajj Tamattu’. However, they disagreed upon whether a pilgrim who performs Hajj Qiran has to offer a Hady or not. The majority of the scholars agree that he has to offer the Hady.
·        The Hady should belong to cattle, such as camel, cow, sheep, or goat. A one- or two-year-old sheep or goat suffices for one pilgrim, and a four-year-old cow or a six-year-old camel suffices for seven pilgrims.
·        A sheep or goat can be sacrificed on behalf of only one person; whereas, a cow or camel can be shared by seven people. Jabir ibn Abdullah said, "We sacrificed with the Messenger of Allah B in the year of Hudaybiya, a camel on behalf of seven (people) and a cow on behalf of seven." [A'Rabee #430]
·        The age of Hady, male or female, should be as follows:
§  A sheep should be aged at least one year.
§  A goat should be aged at least two years.
§  A camel should be aged at least two years.
§  A cow should be aged at least two years.
·        The sacrificial animal must be free of deformities. For example, it shouldn't have an obvious defect, such as being one-eyed, nor should it have a sickness or limp that is apparent. The Messenger of Allah B said: "There are four that will not do as sacrifices: The animal that clearly has one bad eye: the sick animals that is obviously sick; the lame animal with an obvious lamp; and the animal that is so emaciated that it is as if there is no marrow in its bones." [An-Nasa'i #4294] 
·        It is impermissible to slaughter the Hady except in the specified time and place. The specified time for Hady slaughtering is the Day of Sacrifice i.e. 10th Dhul-Hijjah, after stoning of Al-Aqabah Jamrah, therefore anyone who slaughters his Hady  before that has to slaughter another one.
·        It is permissible to slaughter the Hady anywhere within Al-Haram (the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah). Slaughtering is not confined to Mina; that is rather an opinion of only some scholars.
·        It is preferable for the pilgrim to slaughter his Hady himself if he can. Jabir ibn Abdullah said, describing the Hajj of Allah's Messenger B: "He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand. Then he gave the remaining number to Ali who sacrificed them."[Muslim #2137]
·     The pilgrim is recommended to eat from his Hady and give the rest in charity.

·        If the pilgrims bought a Hady and could not pay the price due to overcrowding, then he would not have to give back the Hady, but, rather, to give away the price to the poor if he did not know the owner.
·        The pilgrim may not buy a Hady through a bank because finishing Ihram is conditional on slaughtering the Hady, so he would not know what time it is slaughtered on his behalf, and also on account of the doubts involved in this way.
·        If the pilgrim could not get a Hady on the Day of Sacrifice, he would remain in his Ihram till he sacrifices a Hady, as finishing Ihram is impermissible before sacrificing when affordable.
·        The pilgrim who cannot afford a Hady has to fast for 10 days, of which 3 should be during Hajj, preferably the 6th, 7th, and 8th of Dhul-Hijjah [or he can fast during the Tashriq days (11-12-13th day of Dhul-Hijjah)], and the remaining 7 days after completing Hajj rituals and going back home. Allah Almighty says:
فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ)
"Let his offering be such as is feasible, or if he finds none, then a fast of three days in the Pilgrimage. And of seven when you return; that is a full ten." [2:196]
·        It is not permissible to give the slaughterer anything from the meat in return for his slaughtering. He should be paid separately.
·        Anyone who performs 'Umrah during Hajj months then goes back to his country, and then returns for Hajj intending to do Hajj Ifrad he will not be obliged to offer a sacrificial animal, for he would be ruled out of Tamattu.

Ihlaal (Finishing Ihram) of Hajj
·        When the pilgrim finishes stoning and slaughtering on the Day of Sacrifice, he finishes his Ihram by halq (i.e. by shaving the entire head) or taqseer (i.e. by shortening or clipping some of the hair from all sides of the head). However, snipping off a few hairs here and there is not acceptable.  The proof for this is Anas's Hadith in which he said, "Allah's Messenger B came to Mina; he went to the Jamrah and threw pebbles at it, after which he went to his lodging in Mina and sacrificed the animal. He then called for a barber and, turning his right side to him, let him shave him (i.e. his head); after which he turned his left side." [Muslim, vol. 2, # 2991].
·        A woman shouldn't shave her hair; not for Hajj nor for ’Umrah. Instead, she has to cut a fingertip’s length (or two fingers measured sideways) from her hair. The Prophet B said, "Shaving is not a duty laid on women; only clipping of the hair is required of them." [Abu Dawud, 10, #1979]
·        For the male pilgrim, shaving is better than shortening because Almighty Allah started with it in His saying, Exalted is He:
(لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَاء اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُؤُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ)
"Verily Allah has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in all truth: ‘You will assuredly enter the Sacred Mosque, Allah willing, in safety, to shave your heads, or to shorten [your hair]"[48:27]
And the Prophet B said, "O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.” And he repeated it twice. The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! And those who get their hair cut short.” Then he said (the third time), "And those who get their hair cut short." [Bukhari, vol. 2, #785]

·        It is Sunnah to start shaving or clipping on the right side of the head. Anas ibn Malik reported that Allah's Messenger B came to Mina; he went to the Jamrah and threw pebbles at it, after which he went to his lodging in Mina, and sacrificed the animal. He then called for a barber and, turning his right side to him, let him shave him; after which he turned his left side. [Muslim #2298]
·        The bald pilgrim should pass the razor over his head. This suffices him to terminate his Ihram.
·        After finishing the state of Ihram by shaving or clipping the hair, the pilgrim is allowed to do whatever he had been forbidden during his state of Ihram except intercourse with his wife and hunting. This is called Tahallul Asghar (minor termination of Ihram). The Prophet B said, "When you have thrown and shaved, you are allowed everything except women (i.e. sexual intercourse)."[Reported by An-Nasai, Ahmed and Al-Bayhaqi]. Hunting is in no circumstances allowed in the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah.

Tawaf Al-Ifadah and Sa'y
·        The pilgrim will proceed to Makkah from Mina to perform Tawaf of Ifadhah (or Tawaf of Ziyarah).
·        Tawaf of Ifadah is one of the obligatory pillars of Hajj and leaving it out invalidates Hajj.
·        It is Sunnah (prophetic practice) to perform Tawaf and Sa’y on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah after throwing the pebbles, slaughtering, and shaving or shortening the hair. However it is permissible to delay Tawaf and Sa’y even up till after the Days of Tashriq.
·        The woman in menstruation should delay Tawaf of Ifadah till she finishes her period.
·        Upon completion of the seven rounds of this Tawaf; and after offering the two rak'as by the Station of Abraham, it is encouraged (Sunnah) to drink water from the well of Zamzam.
·        After performing Tawaf of Ifadah and Sa’y the pilgrim concludes his Ihram, therefore he can do whatever was prohibited in Ihram except hunting in the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah. This is called Tahallul Akbar (major termination of Ihram).
·        After Tawaf the pilgrim should return to Mina, and spend the nights of the days of Tashriq.
Tawaf Al-Ifadha

·        The pilgrim who performs Tawaf of Ifadah and then sleeps during the day in Makkah doesn't have to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        It is permissible to eat and drink in Makkah as well as to take a nap after Tawaf of Ifadah. The Prophet B took a nap after Tawaf of Ifadah.
·        Anyone who performs Tawaf of Ifadah six rounds only and then remembers when he has returned home, will have to go back to Makkah and repeat Tawaf of Ifadah. He doesn't have to offer a sacrificial animal according to some scholars if he didn't sleep with his wife. If he did sleep with his wife he has to repeat his Hajj.
·        A pilgrim who intends to perform Hajj Tamattu' terminates his Ihram (major termination of Ihram) after performing both Tawaf of Ifadhah and Sa'y. This is because his first Sa'y is a part of 'Umrah. It only suffices for him to perform two Tawafs and Two Sa'ys for his Hajj and Umrah.
·        Pilgrims who intend to combine Hajj with 'Umrah (Hajj Qiran) or those who intend to perform Hajj only (Hajj Ifrad), if they performed Sa'y when they first came (i.e. after Tawaf Al-Qudoom) then they can terminate their Ihram immediately after performing Tawaf of Ifadhah.

Sunan of Days of Tashriq (11th, 12th and 13th Dhul-Hijja)

Staying overnight in Mina
·        Staying overnight in Mina on the days of Tashriq is Sunnah wajiba (obligatory Sunnah); whoever stays somewhere else has to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        Staying overnight in Mina on the nights preceding 11th and 12th days is obligatory for those who are in a hurry to leave. Those who are not in a hurry to leave are obliged to stay the three nights (i.e the nights preceding 11th, 12th and 13th).
·        In the case of those who have a genuine excuse, like shepherds, sleeping the night at Mina is not necessary, and if they leave out anything they don't incur any penalty. The uncle of the Prophet B, Al-Abbas, sought and got permission from the Prophet B to spend these nights (supposed to be spent in Mina) at Makkah so that he could attend to his functions as provider of drinking water to the pilgrims. [Bukhari #1627]

Mina at Night
Frequent Remembrance of Allah
    It is recommended to make frequent dhikr (remembrance) during the Days of Tashriq. Repetition of Takbir (Allahu Akbar) is Sunnah on these days
وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ))
"And remember Allah, during the Appointed Days."[2:203]
Ibn `Abbas said, `The Appointed Days are the Days of Tashriq (11-12-13th of Dhul-Hijjah) while the Known Days are the (first) ten (days of Dhul-Hijjah).''
The Prophet B said: "Beware, these days are days of eating, drinking and remembrance of Allah, Most High."[Abu Dawud #2430]

Ramy Al-Jamarat (Throwing the Pebbles)
Ramy (throwing pebbles) during Hajj is a form of worship whose hidden meaning human beings cannot comprehend. It is observed as a memorial of that approved action of Abraham (PBUH) which he did at the time he took his son Ishmael (PBUH) for offering him as sacrifice and Satan tried to mislead him. At that time Abraham repelled Satan by throwing pebbles at him.

"Ramy" is to throw or cast. In the context of Hajj, Ramy Al-Jamarat (throwing the pebbles) is a ritual that a pilgrim does in which he throws a certain number of pebbles in a specific manner into a specific place (i.e. the basin of Jamrah located in Mina).

"Jamrah" is a pebble or a small stone which is thrown, whereas "Jimar" or "Jamarat" is plural of Jamrah.

Jamrah has two meanings: (1) the pebbles or small stones that are thrown; (2) the place into which the pebbles are thrown because they end up there.

There are three Jamarat: the first and the middle and the great one is Jamrat Al-Aqabah at the end of Mina in the direction of Makkah.

However, this activity is a symbolic stoning of the devil not an actual stoning itself!

Pilgrims on their way to Throw Pebbles
Al-Jamarat Bridge

How to Perform Ramy
·        Throwing the pebbles is Sunnah wajiba (obligatory Sunnah). Anyone who fails to throw pebbles is required to offer a sacrifice.
·    Stoning the Jamarat starts in the early afternoon till sunset with convenience.
·        The pebbles should be no bigger than the size of a pea. They can be collected at any place from Muzdalifah, Mina, or anywhere within the boundaries of Haram (the Holy Sanctuary of Makkah).
Pilgrims Collecting Pebbles
·        The pilgrim stones the three Jamarat with 21 pebbles each day, each Jamrah with 7 pebbles. This is explained in more details as follows:
The total number of pebbles to be thrown is seventy (70). Seven of these are to be thrown on the first Jamrat Al-Aqabah on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah; twenty one on the 11th day, seven at each of the three Jamarat; and similarly twenty one on the 12th day, throwing seven at each of the three places. The last twenty one pebbles are likewise to be thrown, seven at each of the Jamarat, on the 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah. The total number of these pebbles comes to seventy pebbles!
·        The pilgrim starts throwing at the small Jamrah (Al-Jamrah Al-Soghra) first, then the middle one (Al-Jamrah Al-Wusta)  and finally the largest Jamrah (Al-Jamrah Al-Kobra or Jamrat Al-Aqabah)

·        The pilgrim makes du'a’ after throwing pebbles at the small Jamrah and the middle one, but he doesn't stop to make du'a’ after throwing at the largest Jamrah so as to follow the example of the Prophet B.
·        It is desirable to stand facing the Qiblah, to praise Allah, while supplicating to Him for forgiveness.
·        The pilgrim should repeat the throwing in same way on the two following days for those who are not in a hurry to leave. Those who are in a hurry may leave after throwing on the 12th day.
·        If the pilgrim wants to leave Mina on the 12th day he has to depart before sunrise, otherwise he will have to stay till next day to stone the three Jamarat for the last day. Allay says:
(وَاذْكُرُواْ اللّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلاَ إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ لِمَنِ اتَّقَى وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ)
"And remember God, during certain days numbered. If any man hastens on in two days, that is no sin for him; and if he delays, it is not a sin for him; if he fears; and fear God, and know that to Him you shall be gathered."[2:203]
·        Pilgrims who for a valid reason, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles they may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf.

Conditions of Ramy
There are certain conditions for the validity of Ramy 
·        Niyyah (Intention).
·        Ramy must be done after Ihram for Hajj only.
·        Ramy must be done after standing in Arafah.
·        The pebbles must be of stone, not of other material, like salt, iron, copper, slippers, wood or porcelain, etc.
·        The pebbles must be thrown one at a time, not more
·        The pebbles must fall in the basin of Jamrah; thus if it does not fall into the basin then, it does not suffice according to the Ibadhi School.
·        It is a must that the Ramy is done in order, starting from the smallest Jamrah and ending at the large one.
·        Timing of Ramy must be observed. It starts in the early afternoon till sunset.
Ramy (Throwing Pebbles)

Tawaf Al-Wadaa' (Farewell Tawaf)
·        When the pilgrim finishes throwing at the three Jamarat and wants to leave he has to go to the Sacred House and circles it seven rounds for the farewell Tawaf; as Ibn Abbas narrated: 'The people used to go out (from Makkah after Hajj) by all sides. The Prophet B said: "No one should leave (Makkah) until he performs the last circumambulation of the House (the Ka'bah)."' [Abu Dawud #1711]
·        Tawaf Al-Wadaa' is seven circuits around the Ka'bah followed by two rak'as of Tawaf.
·        Tawaf Al-Wadaa' is performed without Ramal (jogging), Idteba' (exposing his right shoulder while covering his left one), or Sa'y between A'Safa and Al-Marwah.
·        The farewell Tawaf is Sunnah wajiba (obligatory Sunnah), and the pilgrim who does not perform it has to offer a sacrifice.
·      The woman in menstruation or postnatal bleeding is exempt from this obligation. Aisha (May Allah be pleased with her) said: 'Safiyyah bint Huyyay, the wife of the Prophet B, began menstruating and so I mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah B, and he asked: " Is she going to detain us? " and he was told, "She has already done the Tawaf Al-Ifadha,"and he said: "Then she will not detain us now."' [A'Rabee'#441]
·        Nothing wrong with carrying the sick during Tawaf.
·        Tawaf Al-Wadaa' is only due on Afaqi (i.e. the person who lives in the area outside Miqat boundaries). It is not an obligation ( wajib) upon those who are Makki (i.e. residents of Makkah)
Tawaf Al-Wadaa' (Farewell Tawaf)

·        If the pilgrim performs the Farewell Tawaf and doesn't finish the seven rounds, he has to repeat his Tawaf. If he left Makkah without repeating it he would have to offer a sacrificial animal.
·        It is permissible for the pilgrim to take a rest during Tawaf if he feels tired. Then he should continue his Tawaf if his wudu (ablution) is still valid, otherwise he will have to repeat Tawaf from the beginning after renewing wudu'.
·        The pilgrim is not forbidden after farewell Tawaf to eat and drink provided he doesn't buy anything unnecessary that time. Selling and buying is not allowed after farewell Tawaf.
·        It is permissible for the pilgrim who has done farewell Tawaf to pray in the Holy Mosque even an optional prayer, and also to make telephone calls as well as to buy whatever he needs for his journey like fuel and shoes if necessary.
·        It is permissible to do farewell Tawaf before Jum’a prayer even if one leaves Makkah after Jum’a prayer.
The farewell Tawaf concludes the rituals of Hajj.

1.  The Approved in the Jurisprudence of Hajj and 'Umrah (Al Mu'atamad), by Al Mu'tasam Al Ma'awali.
2.      This is Hajj (Pilgrimage), by Nasser Yusuf Al Azri.
3.      Al-Hajj Al-Mabroor, by Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs.

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