Saturday, February 15, 2014

Salaah (Prayer) Jurisprudence (Part 3)

Servitude to Allah Almighty can be realised through Salaah (prayer). It encompasses true sincerity and humility above all other actions. It nourishes the soul and is a sure method of attaining nearness and righteousness to The Creator. Salaah is a direct link between the worshiper and his Lord because there is no hierarchical authority or priests in Islam.

Definition of Salaah (Prayer)
"Salaah" linguistically means du'a (supplication). Allah says in the Quran:
وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ صَلاَتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ))
"…and pray for them; truly your prayers are a comfort for them…"[9:103]
In Islamic legal terminology "Salaah" is a special form of worship that includes intentions, special sayings, thoughts, words and deeds. It starts with Takbir (saying Allaahu Akbar (i.e. Allah is Greatest)) and ends with Tasleem (saying "Assalaamu alaikum wa rahmatulla" (i.e. peace and mercy be upon you). It has specific procedures, conditions and pillars.

Proof of its Legitimacy
Many verses of the Holy Qur’an, as well as prophetic traditions, establish the legitimacy of Salaah. From Quran Allah Almighty says:
(وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ)
"And establish prayer"[2:43]
From Sunnah, Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said: "There is no faith for the one who does not have prayer…"[Ar-Rabee#91]
Salaah was prescribed in the Shariah (Religious Laws) of all the previous messengers. Allah Almighty says, praising Prophet Ishmael (PBUH):
(وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيّاً)
"He used to enjoin upon his kinsfolk prayer and the [payment of] alms, and he was pleasing to his Lord." [19:55]

The obligation of Salaah was something early. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) began to pray two rak'as of ritual prayer twice a day – once in the morning and once in the evening. Afterwards, the five ritual prayers were prescribed in the heavens during the magnificent journey (Al-Isra wa Al-Miraj). Aisha, the wife of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), reported: "The prayer was prescribed as consisting of two rak'as both when one was resident and when travelling. Then the travelling prayer was kept as it was, and an increase was made in the prayer (observed) at the place of residence." [Ar-Rabee'#186]

The Importance of Salaah
Salaah is the most important element of every Muslim‘s life. It has been mentioned in the Quran more than 100 times, and its significance has been mentioned at so many verses in Quran and many Hadiths. Among them are the following:
1.     Salaah is the first practical pillar of Islam after belief in the Unseen. Allah, the Exalted, says (what means):
"… a guidance for the God-fearing, who believe in the Unseen, and maintain the prayer…"[2:2-3]
2.     Salaah is the pillar and foundation of religion. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "For everything there is a pillar, and the pillar of religion is Salaah (prayer)." [Ar-Rabee'#285]. He also said: "The head of the matter is Islam, and its pillar is the Salaah." [At-Tirmidhi#2541]
3.     Salaah is one of the pillars of Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Islam is based on five (pillars): testifying that there is no true god except Allah and that Mohammed is His slave and Messenger; performing of Salaah; ..." [Al-Bukhari#7]
4.     Salaah is the first thing that a person is judged by on the Day of Judgement. The Messenger of Allah said: "Indeed the first deed by which a servant will be called to account on the Day of Resurrection is his Salaah. If it is complete, he is successful and saved, but if it is defective, he has failed and lost."[At-Termidhi#378]
5.     Salaah is a means of support and assistance in times of distress and grief. Allah says (what means): "Indeed man was created restless: when evil befalls him, [he is] anxious, and when good befalls him, [he is] grudging, except those who perform prayers, those who maintain their prayers."[70:19-23]
6.     Salaah builds a strong defense against evils which exist around us. Allah says (what means): "…and maintain prayer; truly prayer prohibits lewd acts and indecency."[29:45]
7.     Salaah is the delight of the eye of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), who said: "Women and perfume have been made beloved to me of this world, and the delight of my eyes has been provided in prayer." [An-Nasa'i#3879]
8.     Salaah was the last will of the Prophet (PBUH) at his deathbed. He was saying: "The prayer (Salaah), and those whom your right hands possess.” [Ibn Majah#2688]
9.     Salaah prevents one to fall into disbelief (Kufr). The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "There is nothing between a servant and disbelief except abandoning Salaah." [Ar-Rabee'#303]

The Ruling of Salaah
Salaah (prayer) is an individual obligation based on evidence from the Quran the Sunnah and Ijma’ (consensus of the Muslim Scholars). It is an obligation and “known by necessity in the religion”. Allah says (what means): "And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to practise regular charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight."[98:5] The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Islam is based on five (pillars): testifying that there is no true god except Allah and that Mohammed is His slave and Messenger; performing of Salaah; ..." [Al-Bukhari#7]

The Ruling on Abandoning Salaah
The Nation has agreed that Salaah is an absolute individual obligation upon every single Mukallaf (legally responsible adult).
The issues of a person abandoning Salaah are:
A.   Abandonment of Salaah out of denying its obligation.
There is a unanimous consensus that this person is a disbeliever apostate. It is a disbelief that reaches the level of shirk (polytheism), because one denies what is necessarily known of the religion. Thus, whoever does this should be asked to repent. If a person repents sincerely for having abandoned Salaah, he does not need to make up for missed Salah, but if he refuses to do so, then he is killed as an apostate.
B.    Abandonment of Salaah out of laziness and carelessness.
This is an act of kufr-ne'ma (a disbelief of Allah`s blessings) without denial. The person is not a disbeliever, but committed an evil sin and is asked to repent three times. If one does repent he is obliged to make up for the missed prayers; so either he repents or is killed as a prescribed punishment (hadd).
C. Abandonment of Salaah out of a legal excuse (e.g. sleep or forgetfulness).
Despite sleep and forgetfulness being legal excuses, the obligation to perform the prayer is not eliminated by its time having passed. The person who has slept or forgotten to pray in its proper time is required to make it up immediately when he awakens or remembers if it is not odious time.
D. Abandonment of Salaah during the period of menses or postnatal bleeding
There is a legal obligation not to pray, and thus women are following God's commands, which is a sign of strength in belief.

The Five Prayers
1.     Al-Maghrib (Sunset Prayer)
It consists of three rak'as. When in congregation, the imam (prayer leader) recites the first two rak'as out loud and the third silently. Al-Fatiha and another Surah (Chapter) are recited in the first two rak'as and only Al-Fatiha is recited in the last rak'as.
2.     Al-Isha (Night Prayer)
It consists of four rak'as. The imam offers the two rak'as out loud and the last two silently. Al-Fatiha and another Surah are recited in the first two rak'as and only Al-Fatiha is recited in the last two rak'as.
3.     Al-Fajr (Morning Prayer)
It consists of two rak'as. The imam will recite out loud. Al-Fatiha and another Surah are recited in each of the two rak'as.
4.     Al-Dhuhr (Noonday Prayer)
It consists of four rak'as. The Imam will pray silently. Al-Fatiha is recited in every rak'a.
5.     Al-Asr (Late afternoon Prayer)
It consists of four rak'as. The Imam will pray silently. Al-Fatiha is recited in every rak'a.

Adhan (Call to Prayer) and Iqamah (call to start the Prayer)

Linguistically "Adhan" means informing, whatever it is, and in Islamic Shariah, it is 'a call to inform others in specific words that the time for a prayer has begun'.

The Event behind Adhan's Legislation
Adhan is prescribed according to Quran, Sunnah and scholarly consensus. Allah Almighty says:
وَإِذَا نَادَيْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ))
"And when you make the call to prayer" [5:58]
Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said, "Whenever you hear the Adhan (call to prayer), say what the Muadhin (one who calls to prayer) is saying."[Ar-Rabee'#175]
The Adhan was prescribed in the first year after the Prophet’s migration to Medina. The Hadith clarify what led up to its institution.

Ibn `Umar: "When the Muslims arrived at Medina, they used to assemble for the prayer, and used to guess the time for it. During those days, the practice of Adhan for the prayers had not been introduced yet. Once they discussed this problem regarding the call for prayer. Some people suggested the use of a bell like the Christians, others proposed a trumpet like the horn used by the Jews, but `Umar was the first to suggest that a man should call (the people) for the prayer; so Allah's Messenger (PBUH) ordered Bilal to get up and pronounce the Adhan for prayers."[Al-Bukhari#604]

Abdullah ibn Zaid reported: "when the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) ordered a bell to be made so that it might be struck to gather the people for prayer, a man carrying a bell in his hand appeared to me while I was asleep, and I said; servant of ‘abd Allah, will you sell the bell? He asked; what will you do with it? I replied; we shall use it to call the people to prayer. He said; should I not suggest you something better than that. I replied: certainly. Then he told me to say: Allah is most great, Allah is most great, Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that there is no god but Allah. I testify that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah, I testify that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah. Come to pray, come to pray; come to salvation; come to salvation. Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah. He then moved backward a few steps and said: when you utter the Iqamah, you should say: Allah is most great, Allah is most great. I testify that there is no god but Allah, I testify that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah. Come to prayer, come to salvation. The time for prayer has come, the time for prayer has come: Allah is most great, Allah is most great. There is no god but Allah. When the morning came, I came to the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) and informed him of what I had seen in the dream. He said: it is a genuine vision, and he then should use it to call people to prayer, for he has a louder voice than you have. So I got up along with Bilal and began to teach it to him and he used it in making the call to prayer. ‘Umar ibn Al-khattab (Allah be pleased with him) heard it while he was in his house and came out trailing his cloak and said: Messenger of Allah. By him who has sent you with the truth, I have also seen the kind of thing as has been shown to him. The Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) said: To Allah be the praise."[Abi Dawud#421]

The Virtues and Excellence of the Adhan
There are many Hadiths that point out the virtues of Adhan and command people to announce it, some of which are below:

Abu Hurayra reported that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "If people knew what was in the Adhan and the first row of the prayer and could only draw lots for it, they would draw lots." [Malik#136]

Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said to a man, "I see that you love sheep and the desert, so When you are among your sheep or in your desert and want to pronounce the Adhan, raise your voice, for no Jinn, human being or any other things hear the Muadhin's voice but will be a witness for him on the Day of Resurrection. That's how I heard from Allah's Messenger (PBUH)." [Ar-Rabee'#176]The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) also said: "The Muadhinun (callers to prayer) will have the longest necks on the Day of Resurrection." [Muslim#580]

Status of Adhan and Iqamah
·     Adhan is fard kifayah (communal obligations) for a resident community for all obligatory prayers.
·        Adhan and Iqamah are sunnah for an individual.
·   Adhan and Iqamah are sunnah for fard (obligatory) prayers and Jumah (Friday) prayer.
·   There is no Adhan or Iqamah for Funeral prayer, Eid, Lunar or Solar eclipse, Taraweeh, Witr, Sunnah and Nafil prayers.
·  Salaat-ul-kusoof (Solar Eclipse prayer) and Salaat-ul-Khusoof (Lunar Eclipse prayer) are called for by proclaiming: "Al-Salat Jamia'a ".
·  Adhan and Iqamah are prescribed when performing any prayer in its prescribed time (Adaa') or after (Qadaa'), and for the one who is in his hometown or a traveler.
·        There is no Adhan or Iqamah for women.

Wording of Adhan and Iqamah
·        The words of the Adhan are as follows:

اَللهُ أكْبَرُ اَللهُ أكْبَرُ
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest.

اَللهُ أكْبَرُ اَللهُ أكْبَرُ
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest.

أشْهَدُ أنْ لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ

Ash-hadu alla ilaha illa-llah.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

أشْهَدُ أنْ لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ

Ash-hadu alla ilaha illa-llah.
I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah.

أشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah.
I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

أشْهَدُ أنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللهِ

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasulullah.
I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

حَيَّ عَلى الصَّلاَةِ حَيَّ عَلى الصَّلاَةِ
Hayya ‘ala-s-Salaah, hayya ‘ala-s-Salaah.
Hasten to the Prayer, hasten to the Prayer

حَيَّ عَلى الْفَلاَحِ حَيَّ عَلى الْفَلاَحِ
Hayya ‘ala-l-falaah, hayya ‘ala-l-falaah.
Hasten to real success, hasten to real success

اَللهُ أكْبَرُ اَللهُ أكْبَرُ
Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest.

لاَ إلهَ إلاَّ اللهُ

La ilaha illa-llah
There is none worthy of worship but Allah.

·        The way to perform Iqamah is by repeating the Adhan and adding after (حَيَّ عَلى الْفَلاَحِ) "Hasten to real success" this sentence twice: (قَدْ قَامَتِ الصَّلاةُ) "Qad Qamat as-Salat" (Salaah is being established)

The Messenger of Allah said: "Adhan is said twice and the phrases of the Iqamah are said twice." [Ar-Rabee'#175]

How to Make Adhan and Iqamah
Muadhin should raise his voice for the call of Adhan. He should recite the Adhan slowly, and in a loud, clear and relatively pleasant voice, but without singing which obscures the meaning of what is said. He should also pause between each phrase during the Adhan.
Iqamah should be read fast without any pause or extending the words, as is the case with Adhan. "Allah's Messenger said to Bilal: "O Bilal! When you call the Adhan then do so deliberately and slowly, and when you call the Iqamah then be quick."[At-Termidhi#180] Iqamah is said with a lower voice compared to the Adhan but not so low that the people there cannot hear.

Conditions of Adhan and Iqamah
1)     Adhan and Iqamah must be called by a sane Muslim male.
2) Adhan should be called after the time of prayer has arrived. However, it is permissible to make two Adhans for Al-Fajr (dawn) and Juma (Friday) prayers; the first one is called before the prayer time, and the second one is called when the time of prayer sets in.
3)     Adhan and Iqamah must be called in their original Arabic form.
4)     The wordings of Adhan and Iqamah must follow the proper order (Tarteeb).
5)     Adhan and Iqamah must be made in a sequential manner (Muwalah), i.e. there should not be a large gap between their words.

Sunan Actions of Adhan

·   The Muadhin should be pure and clean from Hadath, both major and minor.
·        Adhan should be made at the beginning of prayer time.
·        The call to prayer should be said while standing
·        He must recite it while facing the Qiblah.
·   He must say it in a loud voice. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Raise your voice, for no Jinn, human being or any other things hear the Muadhin's voice but will be a witness for him on the Day of Resurrection."[Ar-Rabee'#176]
·      The Muadhin should recite the Adhan with the tip of his index fingers, he must cover his earholes. Abu Juhaifah narrated: "I saw Bilal calling the Adhan, and turning, and his (face) was following here and there, and his (index) fingers were in his ears…"[At-Tirmidhi#181] 
·       When saying: "Hayya ‘ala-s-Salaah" the Muadhin should turn to his right, and when saying: "Hayya ‘ala-l-falaah" he should turn to his left.
·     It is preferred that whoever is listening to the Adhan repeat it with the caller, except for the two Hayya ‘ala-s-Salah, Hayya ‘ala-l-falah phrases, after which he should say: "La haula wa la quwatah illa billah" (there is no power or might save Allah).
·        The Muslim should pray for the Prophet, peace be upon him, after the call is over in any of the manners that have been related, and ask Allah to give him the place of wasilah. Jaber ibn Abdullah related that the Messenger of Allah, upon whom be peace, said, "Whoever after listening to the Adhan says, 'Allahumma Rabba hadhihi-dda` watit-tammah, was-salatil qa'imah, ati Muhammadan al-wasilata wal-fadilah, wa b`ath-hu maqaman mahmudan-il-ladhi wa`adtahu' [O Allah! Lord of this perfect call (perfect by not ascribing partners to You) and of the regular prayer which is going to be established, give Mohammed the right of intercession and illustriousness, and resurrect him to the best and the highest place in Paradise that You promised him (of)], then my intercession for him will be allowed on the Day of Resurrection". [Al-Bukhari#579] It was narrated from Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Whoever says, when he hears the Muadhin: 'Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah wahdahu la sharika lahu wa anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa Rasuluhu, raditu Billahi Rabban, wa bi Muhammadin Rasula, wa bil-Islami dinan (I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship except Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and that Mohammed is the His slave and Messenger; I am content with Allah as my Lord, Islam as my religion and Mohammed as my Messenger),' his sins will be forgiven." [Muslim#579]

Nawaqidh (Invalidators) of Adhan and Iqamah
·        Losing the mind.
·        Committing apostasy during performing Adhan or Iqamah.
·        Using lewd or obscene words or acts during performing Adhan or Iqamah.
·        Lack of Muawalah.
·        Lack of Tarteeb.

·        Enough time should be left between the Adhan and Iqamah for people to prepare themselves for prayer and get to the mosque. Allah's Messenger said to Bilal: "…Allow enough time between your Adhan and Iqamah for the person eating to finish what he is eating, the person drinking to finish what he is drinking, and the one who needs time to relive himself, and do not stand until you see me."[At-Termidhi#180]
·        A Muslim who hears the Adhan whilst he is in the mosque or the one who enters the mosque after the Adhan must not exit before performing the obligatory prayer unless he has a need for it, or intended to return and join the congregation. It is disliked (makruh) due to the prohibition mentioned in the many Hadiths. Abu Huraira said, when a man went out of the mosque after the call to prayer had been announced: "This man has disobeyed Abu'l- Qasim (Muhammad) (PBUH)."
·        One should make du'a (supplication) between Adhan and Iqamah. Anas ibn Malik narrated: 'The messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "The supplication made between the Adhan and the Iqamah is not rejected."'

The Time between the Iqamah and the Prayer
It is permitted to talk between the Iqamah and Takbeerat al-Ihram. The time should be enough for the people to stand for Salaah, get into the lines of Salaah, straighten the lines, and recite the Tawjeeh (orientation). One needs to repeat the Iqamah, if the interval is long.

Conditions of Salaah
A condition of Salaah is a prerequisite of Salaah. It is something that is required before the prayer begins in order for it to be valid.

A)  Conditions of obligation
1.     Sanity
2.     Maturity
3.     Taharah (purification) from menses and postpartum bleeding

B)  Conditions of validity
1.     Islam
2.     Taharah (purification)
3.     The entrance of the prayer’s time.
4.     Covering the Awrah (private parts)
5.     Facing the Qiblah
Conditions of obligation
A)  Takleef (legal maturity)
Takleef (legal maturity) is a condition for the obligation of acts of worship. It is comprised of two parts: Al-Aql (sanity) and Al-Bulugh (attainment of the age of puberty).
1.     Al-aql (Sanity)
As for the insane person, the pen (that records his deeds) is lifted from him until he regains sanity. The proof for this is the Hadith: "The pen has been lifted for three: the insane until he regains his sanity, the sleeper until he wakes up, and the child until he reaches puberty." [Abu Dawud #3823].
2.     Al-Bulugh (Puberty)
Boys have three signs for reaching puberty: either by occurrence of wet dreams (Ihtilam), appearance of coarse hair in usual places (e.g. pubic hair), or attaining fifteen lunar years of age (according to an opinion).The signs of puberty in girls include breast development, experiencing menstruation or pregnancy.
"The Prophet (PBUH) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him for prayer."[Abu Dawud#417] Although Salaah becomes fard (obligatory) after maturity, the Hadith teaches us that when a child (girl or boy) completes seven years of age they should be encouraged to perform Salaah. When a child completes ten years of age and is still not performing Salaah, the child should be reprimanded and threatened with a beating. The beating is to inculcate the habit of Salaah in the child and not mere punishment, so the beating should be light, without inflicting severe harm and wounds. The reason for the child starting Salaah at such an early age is that when the child reaches maturity, the habit of performing Salaah will be embedded in the child and the child will not neglect Salaah after maturity.
B)  Taharah (Purification) from Menses and Postpartum Bleeding
Salaah during the time of Haidh (menses) and Nifas (postpartum bleeding) is excused. They will not be performed during Haidh and Nifaas nor will Qadhaa be made of them later.

Conditions of validity
1.     Islam
The actions of a disbeliever are not accepted by Allah, regardless of what good deed he may perform. The only prayer that is accepted is the Muslim’s prayer, a reality that is proven by this verse: "Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him and in the Hereafter he shall be among the losers."[3:85]

2.     Taharah (Purification)
Before a Muslim offers a prayer, he must remove two things:
-         Ritual impurity (Hadath)
-         Physical impurity (Khabath)
Ritual impurity is of two types:
-         Major ritual impurity (Hadath Akbar): This can be removed by performing Ghusl (ritual bath).
-         Minor ritual impurity (Hadath Asghar): This can be removed by performing Wudhu' (ablution).
Taharah involves absolving oneself from both types of ritual impurity. Prayer is not valid without Wudhu' and without the washing of the body to remove ceremonial impurity. This is based on the statement of the Prophet (PBUH): "… and there is no prayer for one who does not have ablution." [Ar-Rabee#91]
Physical impurity should be removed from three:
-         Clothing: Allah says (what means): "And purify your clothes." [74:4] The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Mani (sexual or ejaculate fluid), Madhi (pre-sexual or pre-ejaculate fluid), Wadi (fluid discharged after urination), blood of Haidh (menses), and blood of Nifas (postpartum bleeding) are Najis (impure). None should offer prayer in a garment in which one of these has dropped until it is washed and its trace disappears." [Ar-Rabee'#148]
-         Body: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Wash the blood, and pray." [Al-Bayhaqi#327]
-         Site of prayer: The Prophet prohibited Salaah from being performed in the slaughtering area, the graveyard, and in the area that camels rest because of the possibility of the presence of impurities.

3.     Time
The prescribed prayers are not considered valid until after the arrival of their stated times. Prayers should not be delayed beyond their appointed time without a valid excuse. Allah says (what means): "…Surely the prayer is for believers a prescription at specific times." [4:103]

The time of five prayers
The daily obligated prayers are to be performed at its prescribed times. The times are as follows (starting from the beginning of the Islamic Arabic day):
6.     Al-Maghrib
Immediately after sunset until the red twilight is gone.
7.     Al-Isha
When the red twilight has just disappeared until midnight.
8.     Al-Fajr
When the true dawn appears until the beginning of sunrise.
9.     Al-Dhuhr
When the sun has just passed the meridian (until prior to Al-Asr)
10. Al-Asr
When the shadow of every object is of the same length as the object itself until the beginning of sunset.

The Combination of Prayer Times
It was proven in the authentic Hadith of Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prayed Al-Dhuhr (noon) and Al-Asr (afternoon) prayers together, and Al-Maghrib (sunset) and Al-Isha (night) prayers together, without any fear, travel, clouds or rain."[Ar-Rabee'#251] Based on this authentic Hadith, some scholars hold the opinion of the combination of prayer times. That is, in cases of hardship or necessity it is allowed to combine between Al-Dhuhr and Al-Asr prayer any time between the start of Dhuhr and the end of Asr. Likewise, it is allowed to pray Al-Maghrib and Al-Isha together in the time of either. According to these scholars, this verdict is conditional on not making this act a habit, because it was not among the acts which the Prophet (PBUH) used to do. 'When it was said to Ibn Abbas: "What did he intend thereby?" He replied: "He wanted that his Ummah (nation) should not be put to unnecessary hardship."' [Muslim #1151]

The Prohibited (Haram) prayer Times
There are times when it is forbidden (haram) to pray. Uqba ibn 'Amir said: "There were the times at which Allah's Messenger (PBUH) forbade us to pray, or bury our dead: When the sun begins to rise till it is fully up, when the sun is at its height at midday till it passes over the meridian, and when the sun draws near to setting till it sets."[Muslim#1373]
The prohibited (haram) prayer times are as follows: 
1.     Time of sunrise
When the upper part of the sun's disc appears above the horizon, until the sun rises completely.
And it was said: until the sun has risen to the height of a spear above the horizon; nowadays this is regarded as equivalent to twelve minutes after sunrise.
2.     Time of meridian (moment of Zawal)
This is during the midday, when it is extremely hot. When the sun is at its peak or its height, until it passes the meridian (Zawal). However, it is permissible to perform Juma' (Friday) Prayer before Zawal.
3.     Time of sunset
When the bottom part of the sun's disc disappears below the horizon, until the sun sets completely.
It was also said: From when the sun yellows before sunset until after it has set. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Do not pray after Al-Asr except if the sun is high [in the sky]" [Ahmed#1020]
4.     It is prohibited to offer any prayer once the Iqamah is given for an obligatory prayer, for one who has not yet offered that obligatory prayer. In such case, when the Iqamah is called, one must interrupt whatever prayer one is praying and join the group. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the prescribed (obligatory) one."[Muslim#1160]
5.     It is prohibited to offer any prayer during the time of Khutbat Al-Juma' (Friday Sermon), except for the two rak'as of Tahiyyat-ul-masjid (greeting the mosque).

Disliked (Makrooh) Prayer Times
1.    After the rising of the dawn and before the fard (obligatory) prayer is performed, except for the two sunnah rak'as of Al-Fajr.
2.     After Al-Subh (Al-Fajr) Prayer until the tip of the sun rises.
3.  After Al-Asr Prayer until the sun sets. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "There is no prayer after Al-Asr Prayer until the sun has fully set; and no prayer after Al-Subh (Al-Fajr) Prayer until the sun has clearly risen."[Ar-Rabee'#295]

4.     Clothing
Awrah is a term, which denotes the parts of the body that are not meant to be exposed in public.
Covering the Awrah is one of the prerequisites of Salaah. Allah says (what means): "O Children of Adam! Don your adornment at every place of worship."[7:31]The meaning of "adornment" here is the garment that covers the 'Awrah', for Allah's saying (what means): "O Children of Adam! We have sent down on you a garment to conceal your shameful parts, and feathers." [7:26]
The clothes in which Salaah is offered should be pure and fulfil other conditions. Islam has, however, prohibited two kinds of adornment for men, while permitting them to women. These are, first, gold ornaments and, second, clothing made of silk. On the other hand, white clothing is considered the best of man’s clothes.

The Minimum Limit of Covering for the Validity of Salaah
The dress for men should be such that it covers from the navel to the knees at least (navel and knee are included). The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) passed by Mu’ammar whose two thighs were uncovered, so he said: ‘O Mu’ammar! Cover your two thighs for the two thighs are (a part of) Awrah." [Ahmed21457] However, back, shoulders, chest and abdomen should not be left uncovered. 
The dress of women should be such that it covers her whole body, from head to feet leaving only the face and the palms uncovered (feet are included). When the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) mentioned lower garment (izar), Umm Salamah, asked him: "And (what about) the woman O Messenger of Allah?" He replied: "She may hang down a span." She said: "Still it (foot) will be uncovered." The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Then a forearm's length, nor exceeding it."[Ar-Rabee'#273]

·        Wearing a metallic band watch and performing Salaah in it is not permissible. Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (PBUH) forbade praying while wearing lead and brass (substances)."[Ar-Rabee'#294]
·        Isbal (lengthening and trailing clothing below the ankles) is haram (prohibited); in fact, it is one of the major sins, whether inside or outside prayer. Abu Said Al-Khudri reported: 'I had heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, "The lower garment of the believer should reach to the middle of his calves. There is no harm in what is between that and the ankles. What is lower than that is in the Fire." He said that three times, (and added), "Allah will not look at the one who trails his lower garment in arrogance."[Ar-Rabee'#272]

·    It is permissible for men to wear socks while praying as it is not a condition of Isbal. In addition, socks do not prevent the feet from reaching the ground, and do not prevent one from prostrating on seven limbs.
·     Women must cover their feet, as they are considered the parts that should be covered. So they should also cover them during the prayer, either by wearing a loose and long garment or by wearing socks or the like.
·        There are authentic Hadiths reported from Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) that point out the prohibition of wearing clothes on which there are pictures of animate beings. Therefore, the prayer of one who performs Salaah in garments with pictures on them, whether they are pictures of human beings or pictures of animals, is invalid.
·        Prayer should not be offered in transparent clothing. Also tight fitting clothing which shows the shape of the body should be avoided.

5.     Qiblah
All scholars agree that one must face the Ka'bah during every prayer. It is a pillar without which the prayer is invalid. Whoever can see the Ka'bah with his eyes must face it but whoever cannot see it should face its direction, as this is all that he is able to do.

Facing the Qiblah is one of the conditions of prayer being valid. Every worshipper has to make sure he faces the Qiblah in his prayer, and strive to make sure he is facing in the right direction, whether by means of natural signs or using a compass, if he is able to do that, or by asking people in that place who know in which direction the Qiblah is. He should try his best to determine the direction of the Qiblah and pray accordingly. In such case, his prayer will be valid and does not have to repeat it even if he discovers later on that he had faced the wrong direction.

Cases in which one does not have to face the Ka'bah
Facing the Qiblah is obligatory except for the following cases:
1)     If the prayer is the type observed during the time of fear of enemy or thieves, or when pursued by a beast of prey, or in a severe battle.
2)     Praying while having to deal with forced conditions (e.g. being tied up), and illness.
3)    If one performing voluntary prayers in travel while riding on an animal or a car, and so on. Ibn Umar reported: "the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to pray on his mount while travelling, whichever direction it was facing." Ar-Rabee' commented: "And this is in voluntary prayers."[Ar-Rabee'#200]

Establishing a Sutrah
Praying towards a sutrah (screen) is a Prophetic Sunnah. It is preferred for one who is praying to place a sutrah (or some sort of partition) in front of him in order to keep others from passing in front of him and to keep his eyesight from going behind this partition. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "When one of you places in front of him so me. thing such as the back of a saddle, he should pray without caring who passes on the other side of it." [Muslim#769]

The worshipper should try to stop the one who wants to walk in front of him, because of the report narrated by Ar-Rabee' and others from Abu Said Al-Khudri who said: 'The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "Whenever anyone of you is in prayer, he should not let anyone pass in front of him, and should try to turn him away as far as possible, but if he refuses (to go), he should fight him, for he is only a devil."'[Ar-Rabee'#243]

If someone passes between a worshipper and his sutrah, then the prayer is not invalidated. However, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "If the person who passes in front of a praying person, knew what (burden of sin) there is on him, he would prefer to wait for forty rather than to pass in front of him."Jaber ibn Zaid said: "Some people said that he meant forty years. Others said that it is forty months. And others said that it is forty days."[Ar-Rabee'#242]

·         The Approved in the Jurisprudence of Prayer (Al Mu'atamad), by Al Mu'tasam Al Ma'awali
·         Prayer; in Sketches and Color Prints, by Dr. Ali ibn Hilal Al 'Abri
·         The Compilation of Exposition in the Jurisprudence of Prayer (Jami' Al Bayan), by Hilal ibn Khamis Al Batrani


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