Saturday, January 25, 2014

Salaah (Prayer) Jurisprudence (Part 2)

Wudhu' (Ablution)

Definition of Wudhu' (Ablution)
"Wudhu'" is linguistically derived from "Wadha’ah", which means prettiness and cleanliness.
In Islamic terminology, it means to use Tahoor (pure and purifying) water to clean specific limbs of the body in a specific method with the intention of worship.

Proof of its Legitimacy
The practice of Wudhu' is derived from the Qur'an, Allah Almighty says:
)يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُباً فَاطَّهَّرُواْ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ مَا يُرِيدُ اللّهُ لِيَجْعَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ حَرَجٍ وَلَـكِن يُرِيدُ لِيُطَهَّرَكُمْ وَلِيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ(

"O you who believe, when you stand up to pray wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and your feet up to the ankles. If you are defiled, purify yourselves; but if you are sick, or on a journey, or if any of you comes from the privy, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then head for wholesome dust, and wipe your faces and your hands with it. Allah does not desire to make any hardship for you; but He desires to purify you, and that He may perfect His grace upon you; so that you might give thanks."[5:6] 
The Prophet (PBUH) said: "There is no faith for the one who does not have prayer and there is no prayer for one who does not have ablution." [Ar-Rabee#91]

Rulings of Wudhu'
A.   It is wajib (obligatory) upon Muslims to make Wudhu' for three things:
1.     Before performing ritual prayer.
2.     Before touching the mushaf (copy of Quran) and reading from it.
3.     Before making Tawaf (Circumambulation) around the Ka'bah.

B.    There are certain occasions when it is mandoob (recommended) to make Wudhu'. Some of these are:
1.     Before sleep and after waking up. Al-Bara' bin 'Azib reported: 'The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) directed me thus: "Whenever you go to bed, perform Wudhu' as you do for Salaah (prayer)."' [Bukhari#239] Abu Huraira said, 'Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: "Satan ties three knots at the nape of the head of one of you if he sleeps. And he seals the place of each knot with 'You have a long night ahead, so sleep.' If he wakes up and remembers Allah, a knot is untied. If he performs Wudhu' (ablution), a knot is untied. If he prays, a knot is untied. Therefore, he wakes up energetic and in good spirit in the morning; otherwise he wakes up in a bad spirit and lazy."'[Ar-Rabee'#130]
2.     When intending to take a ritual bath (Ghusl) because of sexual defilement (Janabah). Aisha said: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) intended to take a bath (Ghusl) because of sexual defilement, he started by washing his hands and then performed ablution (Wudhu') as is done for Salaah (prayer)..." [Ar-Rabee#138]
It is recommended for the Junub (a person in a state of major ritual impurity) to make Wudhu' if he wants to eat, drink or go to bed. Aisha reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had sexual intercourse and intended to eat or sleep, he performed the ablution of prayer." [Muslim#461]
3.     When reading the Holy Quran from memory, studying Hadith and its narrations, or reading from Sharia sciences books, such as Tafsir (Quran Interpretation), Hadith and Jurisprudence.
4.     When one becomes angry because performing Wudhu' extinguishes the fire of anger. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said: "So when one of you becomes angry, he should perform Wudhu' (ablution)." [Ahmed#17302]

Obligations of Wudhu'
1)    Niyyah (Intention)
Niyyah is one of the pillars and obligations of Wudhu'. It is made by intending (in the heart) to remove the state of ritual impurity and to purify oneself to perform an act of worship.
The intention should be made at the beginning, before starting the actions of Wudhu'. The intention must be made before the first obligatory element of Wudhu', which is the washing of the face. Thus if one washes some of the obligatory elements of Wudhu' before making the intention for Wudhu'; then his Wudhu' is invalidated and he must start it again. 
When someone makes his intention at the beginning of the Wudhu' and then fails to continue to remember it, that does not impair his Wudhu'. However if he truly intends in his heart to invalidate his Wudhu' then his Wudhu' is invalidated and he must start it again.
2)    Washing the whole face
Allah Almighty says,
فاغْسِلُواْ وُجُوهَكُمْ))
"…wash your faces…"
That is, washing the entire face by pouring water all over it. Wiping the face is insufficient.
In length, the face extends from where the normal roots of the hair on the head begin to the end of the chin. In width, the face is the part between the two earlobes.
If the man has a beard he must make water penetrate the thin beard in Wudhu', but not the thick beard. He must also wash the sideburns and the white area (hairless part) between the beard and ears.

3)    Washing hands up to elbows
It is mandatory to wash the arms up to and including the elbows. 
Allah Almighty says,
وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ))
"… and your hands up to the elbows…"
Abu Huraira described the Wudhu' of the Prophet (PBUH) in the Hadith reported by Nu'aim bin 'Abdullah Al-Mujmir:"I saw Abu Huraira perform ablution. He washed his face and washed it well. He then washed his right hand including a portion of his arm. He then washed his left hand including a portion of his arm. He then wiped his head. He then washed his right foot including his shank, and then washed his left foot including shank..." [Muslim #362]
Many should pay attention to make "Takhleel", which means to pass the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other hand to ensure that water has reached all parts of hands. The Prophet (PBUH) said: ""Pass water through your fingers (as well as the toes) when making Wudhu'(i.e. make Takhleel) before nails of fire will be passed through them (i.e. in the Day of Judgement)." [Ar-Rabee'#90]

4)    Wiping the head
Allah Almighty says,
وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ))
"…and wipe your heads…"
Wiping means 'passing wet hands over the organ (of ablution)'.
The head, here, is from the normal roots of the hair (from the front above the forehead) to the nape of the head.
Scholars disagree as to how much of the head has to be wiped. It is possible to summarize their views as two opinions: 
The first opinion: It is obligatory to wipe over the whole head. This is the opinion of scholars like Ibn Barakah (Abdullah ibn Mohammed ibn Barakah Al-Bahlawi, an Ibadhi scholar, died about 362 A.H). They argue that the apparent meaning of Allah’s words:
 وَامْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ))
"And wipe upon your heads…" is that the entire head has to be wiped.
The second opinion: It is sufficient to wipe over a portion of the head. Their evidence is the Hadîth related by Ibn Abbas that "the Prophet (PBUH) wiped over a portion of his head during Wudhu'." [Ar-Rabee'#96]
However, scholars agree that whoever wipes over the entire head has done well and has done what he has to do in the most complete possible manner. So it is better to wipe upon the entire head to play it safe.

5)    Washing feet up to ankles
Allah Almighty says:
(وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ)
"… and your feet up to the ankles…"
The two ankles are the two bones that bulge out just below the calf and connect your legs to your feet.
The two ankles are included in the washing of the foot. Wiping the feet is insufficient and whoever wiped them due to ignorance of the ruling, has to repeat his prayer.
One must make sure to wash the Achilles' tendon, the heels and the bottoms of the feet.
The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Woe to the Achilles' tendon because of Hell-fire. And woe to the bottoms of the feet because of Hell-fire." [Ar-Rabee' #92]
One should also pay attention to make "Takhleel" of the toes, i.e. to wash between the toes and to use the hand to wipe with. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Pass water through your fingers (as well as the toes) when making Wudhu'(i.e. make Takhleel) before nails of fire will be passed through them (i.e. in the Day of Judgement)." [Ar-Rabee'#90]

Sunan of Wudhu'
The Sunan (recommended act) of Wudhu' are as follows:
1.     Using Siwak (tooth-stick) before making Wudhu'. It is mandoob (recommended). The Prophet (PBUH) said: "If it were not that it would be difficult on my nation then, I would have ordered them to use the Siwak for each prayer and each ablution." [Ar-Rabee'#86]
2.     Tasmiyah (saying: “Bismillah” (In the Name of Allah). It is wajib (obligatory) whether in remembrance or ignorance. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "There is no ablution for one who does not mention the Name of Allah (before it)." [Ar-Rabee' #88]
3.     Washing both hands up to the wrists, especially after waking up. Allah's Messenger (PBUH) said: "When one of you wakes up from his sleep, he must not put his hand in a utensil till he washed it three times, for he does not know where his hand was during the night."[Ar-Rabee'#87]
4.     Madhmadhah and Istinshaaq. Madhmadhah is washing the mouth by moving the water around inside the mouth making sure to reach the back of the throat, and Istinshaaq is sniffing water into the nose and breathing it into its backmost part and then ejecting the water from the nose.
Madhmadhah and Istinshaaq are both wajib (obligatory). It is mustahub (preferred) to exaggerate in rinsing the mouth and sniffing water into the nose except when one is fasting. The Prophet (PBUH) said to Laqit ibn Saburah: "If you sniff water through your nose do it thoroughly unless you are fasting." [Ar-Rabee' #93]
It is preferable to rinse the mouth and the nose with the same handful of water. This is for the hadith related by Jaber ibn Zaid in which he said, "It reached me that the Prophet (PBUH) rinsed his mouth and sniffed up water into his nostrils with one handful of water."[Ar-Rabee'#94]
5.     Wiping the ears immediately after wiping the head. Jaber ibn Zaid said: 'I heard that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "The ears are part of the head."' Jaber said: "It reached me that the Prophet (PBUH) scooped up one handful (of water) and wiped his head and ears with it."[Ar-Rabee'#97]
It is sufficient to wipe the outside and inside of both ears once. There is a disagreement on whether it is recommended to renew the water to wipe the ears or not.
6.     Tathleeth, that is, to wash each limb thrice, which is to be washed. Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (PBUH) performed ablution (washing each body part) once, and said: "This is the ablution without which prayer will not be accepted." Then he performed ablution (washing each part) twice, and he said: "The one who doubles (the act), Allah will double (the reward) for him." Then he performed ablution (washing each part) thrice, then he said: "This is my ablution and the ablution of the Prophets (who were sent) before me." [Ar-Rabee'#89]
7.     Tarteeb (order or sequence), that is, to do Wudhu' in the prescribed order (mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith) and to start from the right limb. Maintaining sequence in Wudhu' is wajib (obligatory) as this is the Prophetic practice.
8.     Muwalah (maintenance of continuity), that is, to wash the different members of the body in uninterrupted succession. It means that each limb must be washed before the former dries under normal circumstances. Maintaining the continuity of Wudhu' is wajib (obligatory) as this is the Prophetic practice.
9.     Avoid using too much water. The person is required to avoid use of water more than what is necessary. "The Messenger of Allah used to perform ablution with a Mudd (of water) and bath with a Saa'." [related by Muslim & Ibn Majah]  (A Saa' is equal to four Mudds. A Mudd is that amount of water which is held by the two hands cupped together).

Makruhat (Disliked Acts) of Wudhu' 
There are some disliked acts during performing the Wudhu', as follows:
1.     Doing Wudhu' in standing position.
2.     Talking about other than the remembrance of Allah.
3.     Being wasteful with water.
4.     Washing more than three times and wiping more than once.
5.     Making Wudhu' in a place where there are impurities
6.     Exposing the private parts during Wudhu' when one is alone. Otherwise it is haram (forbidden) to expose them in a place where people can see him
7.     Leaving one of the recommended acts (Sunan) of Wudhu'.

Nawaqidh (Invalidators) of Wudhu'
There are matters which break Wudhu', some of them are:
1.     Apostasy by leaving Islam completely or by  denying what is necessarily known of the religion  without Shubha (doubt) or Ta'weel (interpretation).
2.     Touching the Awrah Mughaladha (extreme private parts) of oneself or of others. It makes no difference if that is done with the inside or the outside of the bare palm. Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said: " If any of you touches his penis he should do Wudhu'"[Ar-Rabee'# 115]. Jabir ibn Zaid said, 'It reached me that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "If a woman touches her vagina she should do Wudhu'."'[Ar-Rabee'# 107]
3.     Touching what is Najis* (impure). If what is touched and what is touching are both wet or one of them is wet.
[*Najasaat (Impurities) and their types were previously mentioned in the post entitled Salaah (Prayer) Jurisprudence (Part 1)]
4.     Backbiting. Ibn Abbas reported: The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Backbiting breaks one's fasting and invalidates Wudhu'."[Ar-Rabee'#102] Many scholars hold that all major sins invalidates Wudhu'.
5.     Anything which exits from the two outlets of impurity, such as urine, faeces, gas, worms or stones.
6.     Flowing of blood, i.e. if the blood leaves its place and moves away or flows out from the body (Dam Masfooh).
7.     Ejection of vomit or Qalas (reflex). The Messenger of Allah B said: "Whoever vomits or emits Qalas (reflux) should perform ablution." [Ar-Rabee'#109]
8.     Losing mind or consciousness, due to sleep, intoxication, insanity, fainting, or the like. One can avoid anything that nullifies his ablution as long as he is awake. The prophet (PBUH) said: “The eyes are the leather strap of the anus." [Ar-Rabee'#118]

Method on Performing Wudhu'
Before making Wudhu', one is required to prepare him or herself. The preparation includes making sure to remove from the body or clothing anything that might invalidate Wudhu'. This includes physical impurities (Najasaat) and anything that prevents water from reaching the skin or nail, such as nail polish, etc. Only Tahoor (pure and purifying) water can be used for Wudhu' and Ghusl.
The steps for Wudhu' are as mentioned below:
1.     Making the Niyyah (intention) in the heart that this act of Wudhu' is for the purpose of, e.g. preparing for Salaah (prayer).
2.     Saying: “Bismillah” (in the Name of Allah).
3.     Washing both hands up to the wrists (starting with the right hand) three times, and making sure that water has reached between the fingers.
4.     Taking water into the right hand and washing the mouth by moving the water around inside the mouth and making sure to reach the back of the throat; repeating the same three times.
5.     Taking water with the right hand, sniffing the water into the nostrils, then ejecting the water from the nose with the fingers on the left hand; repeating the same three times.
[*Note: The rinsing of the mouth and the nose can be done with the same handful of water.]
6.     Washing the whole face, from ear to ear, and forehead to chin, three times repeatedly. 
7.     Washing the right arm from the finger-tip to the elbow three times; and ensuring that water has reached the spaces in between the fingers by passing the fingers of one hand through the fingers of the other hand.
8.     Repeating step (7) with the left arm.
9.     Wiping the head by moving the palms of the wet hands lightly over the head, starting from the top of the forehead to the back of the head, and passing both hands over the back of the head to the neck, and then bringing them back to the forehead.
10. Wiping the inside of the ears with the wet index fingers, while also passing the wet thumbs behind the ears from the bottom upward.
11. Washing the right foot from the tips of the toes to the ankle three times, and making sure that water has reached between the toes and covered the rest of the foot by running the finger(s) between the toes.
12. Repeating step (11) with the left foot.

I would recommend watching the following video on How to make Wudhu'

·        Some people while washing their arm, they do not lift up the sleeves of their clothes till the end of their elbows. This is a tremendous mistake because the elbows are included in the washing.
·        Wiping around the neck with wet hands is not Sunnah. There is absolutely no evidence in the authentic Sunnah. Imam Noor Al-Deen Al-Salimi (Abdullah ibn Humaid Al-Salimi, a contemporary Ibadhi scholar, died about 1332 A.H) said: "Wiping the neck was preferred by some scholars and it was not found in Hadiths narrated from the Messenger of Allah (PBUH)."
·        There are no soundly established du'a (supplications) or dhikr (remembrance) during Wudhu' from the Prophet (PBUH), except for the "Tasmiyah" at the beginning and reciting the following dhikr: Narrated 'Umar bin Khattab: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'There is no Muslim who performs ablution and does it well, then says: Ashhadu an la ilaha illallah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan 'abduhu wa rasuluhu (I bear witness that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammed is His slave and Messenger),' (except that) eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him, and he will enter through whichever one he wants.'"[Muslim#345]
·        It is permissible to wipe over Jabira, instead of washing it. Jabira is any bandage on any wound or injury. It is also any splint used for supporting any broken part of the body. Jabira Wudhu' is permissible to lift hardship and difficulty. Allah, the Most Merciful, says:
(وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ)
"…and has not laid upon you in your religion any hardship…"[22:78] The proof of the legitimacy of wiping over Jabira is what was narrated about Ali ibn Abi Talib, that he had broken one of his forearms. Then he asked the Prophet (PBUH) to let him wipe over the bandages, and he said: "Yes." [Ar-Rabee'#124] 
·        Deep sleep while lying down breaks one's Wudhu'. However, scholars differed about other sleeping positions as to whether they invalidate Wudhu' or not, and there are several opinions. One of the preferred opinions is that sleeping, which makes a person lose control over himself (he or she does not know if they have released gas or not), invalidates Wudhu', even if he or she was sitting. Hence, it is not the sleeping that breaks the Wudhu' but the possibility of a gas release. 
·        Washing the feet is one of the pillars and obligatory parts of Wudhu'. Allah Almighty says:
(وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَينِ)
"… and your feet up to the ankles…"[5:6]
Therefore, wiping the feet will not suffice nor wiping over khuffs (footgear or leather socks) after the revelation of the Verse of Surat Al-Ma'idah (Chapter 5), which was the last of the revealed verses. And what was narrated regarding the wiping over khuffs, is therefore Mansoukh (abrogated). Ibn Abbas said: "I have never seen the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) wiping over his khuff (leather sock)."[Ar-Rabee'#117] However, the narrations about the wiping, on the assumption of their authenticity, are Ahad (single reports), and since the Quran is Qat’i (definitive) and Mutawatir (ensured by many lines of transmission) and these Hadiths are Ahad, they are rejected since the speculative cannot override the definite. This is the opinion of many of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH).

Ghusl (Ritual Bath)
Definition of Ghusl (Ritual Bath)
"Ghusl" means 'washing' oneself. In Islamic Jurisprudence, it means to take a full bath or shower with the intention to purify oneself from major impurities like sexual intercourse or menstruation, or to follow the Sunnah.

Proof of its Legitimacy
Ghusl is legislated by Quran and Sunnah. Allah Almighty says:
وَلاَ جُنُباً إِلاَّ عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىَ تَغْتَسِلُواْ))
"…nor whilst you are defiled, unless you are traversing a way, until you have washed yourselves…" [4:43]
Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said: "Madhi necessitates Wudhu' and Mani necessitates Ghusl." [Ar-Rabee' #102&132]

Rulings of Ghusl
Ghusl is divided into that which is wajib (obligatory) and that which is mandoob (recommended).
A.   The obligatory Ghusl
The obligatory Ghusl (ritual bath), is to be done for the following reasons:
1.     Janabah (ritual impurity)
Janabah is a state of major ritual impurity (Hadath Akbar) which results from sexual discharge, or sexual intercourse with or without discharge. Allah Almighty says:
وَإِن كُنتُمْ جُنُباً فَاطَّهَّرُواْ))
"... If you are defiled, purify yourselves..."[5:6]
Man and woman both fall under the same ruling in this regard.  
Ghusl is obligatory after having Inzal (ejaculation or orgasm) with an accompanying fluid discharge, regardless of its cause, whether sleeping (Ihtilam, i.e. wet dream) or awake, for males and females. Ibn Abbas narrated: A women came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and said: "The obscurity has gone, O Messenger of Allah! A woman who sees in her sleep that which a man sees." He said: "She has to perform Ghusl (bath) if she ejaculates." [Ar-Rabee'# 136]
Jima' (sexual intercourse) requires Ghusl (bath), regardless of whether one ejaculated or not. Jaber ibn Zaid reported: I asked Aisha: "Was the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) doing Ghusl (bath) from intercourse even if he did not ejaculate?" She said: "He was doing that with us. He was doing Ghusl and ordering us to do it. He was saying: "Ghusl is obligatory when the two circumcised parts meet." And he was also saying: "When the two circumcised parts meet, then Ghusl (bath) is obligatory, whether a man ejaculated or not."
2.     The termination of menses or post-partum bleeding (Women's Tuhr); based on the statement of Allah:
فَاعْتَزِلُواْ النِّسَاء فِي الْمَحِيضِ وَلاَ تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىَ يَطْهُرْنَ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ))
"…so part with women in the monthly period, and do not approach them until they are pure; when they have cleansed themselves..."[2:222] By this statement, even though it was made about menstruation only, post-partum bleeding gets the same ruling. 
3.     Death. Washing the deceased's body is obligatory on Muslims; it is a Fard Kifaya, i.e., if some members take the responsibility of doing it the need is fulfilled, but if no one fulfills it then all Muslims will be accountable. Um 'Atiyya Al-Ansaria said, 'There came in (our apartment) the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) when his daughter died. He said: "Wash her three or five times or more, if you think it necessary, with water and Sidr (lotus leaves), and last of all put some camphor." [Ar-Rabee'#475]  
4.     A non-Muslim upon embracing Islam. New converts to Islam must perform Ghusl. The Prophet (PBUH) ordered Thumama bin Uthal Al-Hanafi to take a bath when he embraced Islam [Ibn Hibban#1255]
5.     Najasah (impurity) at unknown place on the body. It is obligatory on one who knows for certain about the presence of Najasah but is ignorant of its place to purify his entire body by making Ghusl.

B.    The recommended Ghusl
Ghusl is mandoob (recommended) in following cases:
1.     For Juma (Friday) Prayer. Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) said: "Ghusl (taking a bath) on Friday is compulsory for every Muslim reaching the age of puberty." [Bukhari # 1175 & Ar-Rabee' #282]
2.     Before wearing Ihram for Hajj or Umrah. Kharijah ibn Zaid ibn Thabit reported from his father that he saw the Prophet (PBUH) took off his garments and had a bath (Ghusl) to assume his Ihram."[At-Termidhi#760]
The Ghusl for Ihram is valid even for a woman who is in her monthly cycle or going through post-natal bleeding. Aisha, the Mother of the Believers, said: "Asma bint Umays gave birth to Mohammed ibn Abi Bakr at Al-Bayda. Abu Bakr mentioned this to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), and he said, "Tell her to do Ghusl and then begin the Talbiyah.'' [Ar-Rabee'#442]
3.     For entering Makkah Mukarramah. Nafi’ said, "It was Ibn ‘Umar’s habit that whenever he came to Makkah he spent the night at Dhu Tuwa in the morning he would take a bath (Ghusl) and enter Makkah in the daytime. He used to say the Prophet (PBUH) had done so."[Abi Dawud#1589]
4.     For staying in Arafah. 'Abdullah ibn Umar used to do Ghusl for Ihram before he entered Ihram, and for entering Makkah, and for standing on the afternoon of 'Arafah.[Malik#619]
5.     For Eid Prayers; as many reports from the Companions have been reported regarding this matter.

Obligations of Ghusl
1)    Niyyah (Intention)
This involves distinguishing the acts of worship from the customary acts. If there were more than one reason to perform the Ghusl, i.e. more than one Ghusl is required, it is sufficient to perform one to compensate for all of them.
2)    Covering the entire body with water. The Prophet (PBUH) said: "Under every hair is Janabah (sexual defilement); so moist (all of) the hair and cleanse the skin." [Ar-Rabee'#139]
3)    Muwalah (consecutiveness) means washing the bodily parts one right after another without a pause; i.e. not pausing as long as it, under normal circumstances, takes the last limb you have washed to dry.
4)    Madhmadhah and Istinshaaq. Rinsing of the mouth and sniffing water into the nose and blowing it out.

Sunan of Ghusl
1.     Urination to remove the traces of impurities (such as semen) from the body.
2.     Istinjaa (i.e. to clean the outlets of impurity).
3.     Tasmiyah (saying: “Bismillah” (In the Name of Allah).
4.     Doing Wudhu' First but to leave the feet to the end of Ghusl.
5.     Beginning with the upper body before the lower, and the right side before the left. Because the Prophet (PBUH) used to do that. Aisha said: "The Prophet (PBUH) loved to start from the right side when purifying himself, putting on sandals and combing his hair." [Ahmed#24484]

Method on Performing Ghusl
Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, described the Ghusl (Ritual bath) of the Prophet. She said: "Whenever the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) intended to take a bath (Ghusl) because of sexual defilement, he started by washing his hands and then performed ablution (Wudhu') as is done for Salaah (prayer). After that he would put his fingers in water and run them through the roots of his hair, and then pour water over his head with his hand three times, and then pour water all over his body. And this after making Istinjaa (cleaning the outlets of impurity)" [Ar-Rabee#138]
The proper method of Ghusl (ritual bath) involves the following steps:
1.     Urination: A man is required to pass urine in order to get rid of any semen left in the urethra.
2.     Making the Niyyah (intention) to perform Ghusl for purification.
3.     Washing the hands to the wrists
4.     Making Istinjaa (i.e. cleaning the outlets of impurity) and removing impurities from the entire body.
5.     Washing the private parts (from the navel to the knees)
6.     Performing Wudhu' as done for the prayer. Washing the feet can be delayed until the end of Ghusl. If one chooses to delay Wudhu' till the end of the Ghusl, one has to rinse the mouth and nose.
7.     Pouring water on the head with the hand three times.
8.     Washing the entire body, beginning with the upper body before the lower (starting with your head) and the right side before the left; and rubbing (Dalk) the surface of the body with the hand while applying water.
9.     Washing the right foot and then the left foot.
Water should be made to reach all the hidden places such as the armpits, the hollows of the knees and the groin. One must ensure that no part of the body has been left untouched by water. One may also use soap, shampoo and the like if they wish.

·        There is a number of Ghusls which are not from the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH). These include, Istihadha Ghusl (Ghusl after prolonged flow of blood outside the regular period), Ghusl after Hijama (cupping), and Ghusl after washing dead body.

·   You may also nourish your mind by reading this leaflet "A Brief guide to Ritual Bathing (Ghusl)", which contains additional information and 27 Fatwas (legal opinions) on the subject, issued by His Eminence Sheikh Ahmed ibn Hamed Al-Khalili, the Grand Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman. (please click on the leaflet's image)

Tayammum (Dry Ablution)
Definition of Tayammum
"Tayammum" literally means an 'aim', 'purpose', or 'to head towards something'. In Islamic Law, "Tayammum" the act of using soil  to wipe one's face and hands, in a special way, with the intention of purification from minor or major impurities.
Proof of its Legitimacy
The legitimacy of Tayammum is proven by the Quran, Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and Ijmaa' (consensus of Muslim scholars). Allah Almighty says:
(وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَى أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاء أَحَدٌ مَّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لاَمَسْتُمُ النِّسَاء فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً فَامْسَحُواْ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُم مِّنْهُ)
"…but if you are sick, or on a journey, or if any of you comes from the privy, or you have touched women, and you cannot find water, then head for wholesome dust, and wipe your faces and your hands with it…" [5:6]
From the authentic Sunnah, is the saying of the Prophet (PBUH) to Abu Dharr: "Tayammum suffices you, (even) if you do not find water for ten years." [Ar-Rabee'#169]
Finally, there is a consensus that Tayammum forms a legitimate part of the Islamic Law.

Reasons for Tayammum
Tayammum replaces Wudhu' or Ghusl and enables a person to do any acts of worship that normally require Wudhu' or Ghusl. However, it is permitteding only under the following two sets of circumstances:
1)    Shortage of water. Allah says:
فَلَمْ تَجِدُواْ مَاء فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً))
"… and you cannot find water, then head for wholesome dust…"
Shortage of water may be due to:
a)     Unavailability of water: If one makes reasonable effort to search for water but does not find it.
b)    Inability to reach water: If water is nearby, but one cannot fetch it due to fear of being robbed, harmed or killed or because there is no means to extract it.

2)    Inability to use water, due to:
a)     Extreme cold. Ibn Abbas narrated: "ʻAmr ibn Al-Aas went out for the Campaign of Dhat As-Salasil as the Commander of the Army. He became Junub (in the state of major sexual impurity). He was afraid to use the extremely cold water. Therefore, he performed Tayammum (dry ablution). When he came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), his companions mentioned to the Prophet what he did. Then the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:" O 'Amr! What made you do what you did? And how did you come to know about it?" He replied: "O Messenger of Allah! I found Allah saying: 'And kill not yourselves. Verily Allah is ever Merciful to you.'" So the Prophet (PBUH) laughed and he gave no reply. "[Ar-Rabee'#172]
b)    Fear that using the water will bring about an illness, aggravate an existing illness, or delay recovery. Jaber ibn Zaid said: 'And it reached me about people whom in their presence a man infected with smallpox died. The Prophet (PBUH) was told that he was ordered to perform Ghusl (bath), as he knows. So the smallpox attacked him and he died. The Prophet (PBUH) said: They killed him; may Allah kill them! What have they (to fear) if they ordered him to perform Tayammum?" [Ar-Rabee'#174]
c)     Saving the water for later use, for the Islamic legal maxim "Al-Darar Yuzal" (which means damage or harm is removed)
d)    Fear of missing the prayer. Aisha said: "We travelled with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) on one of his journeys, and when we reached Al-Bayda, my necklace was broken. Allah's Messenger (PBUH) stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. . There was neither any water at that place nor was there any water with them. So the people came to Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, and said: 'Don't you see what your daughter has done to the people? She has detained them without water.' So Abu Bakr came to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and found him sleeping, with his head on my thigh. He (Abu Bakr) said: 'You have detained the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and the people where there is no water and they have no water with them.'" Aisha said: "Abu Bakr scolded me and uttered what Allah wanted him to utter and nudged my hips with his hand. So I prevented myself from moving for the position of Allah's Messenger (PBUH) on my thigh The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) slept till dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the verse pertaining to Tayammum. She said: "We caused the camel on which I was riding to move from its place and found the necklace under it." [Ar-Rabee'#166]

Pillars of Tayammum
1.     Niyyah (Intention)
Niyyah to purify oneself from minor or major impurities.
2.     Striking both palms on clean dry soil.
3.     Wiping the whole face once, without Tathleeth (to wipe the face thrice) or Takhleel (to pass fingers into the beard).
4.     Wiping of hands from the tips of the fingers to the wrists by placing the left hand on the right hand and then the opposite. Ammar ibn Yaser said: 'I became Junub (in the state of major sexual impurity). So I rolled in the dust. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) then said: "Would this not be sufficient for you?" And he wiped his face and hands up to the wrists."' [Ar-Rabee'#170]

Sunan of Tayammum
1.     Tasmiyah (saying: “Bismillah” (In the Name of Allah), by Qiyas (analogy) to Wudhu'.
2.     Blowing into the palms or shaking them off gently before wiping.
3.     Tarteeb, means to perform in chronological order, i.e. wiping the face and then the hands.
4.     Muwalah, means to perform successively without pausing

Nawaqidh (Invalidators) of Tayammum
1.    Everything that nullifies Wudhu' nullifies Tayammum.
2.     Tayammum is invalid if water is present and can be used for Wudhu'.

The Soil Used for Tayammum
It must be a pure wholesome soil, with dust and free of Najasaat (impurities), such as sand, stone, and so on. It must not be wet soil, ash or stolen soil. Allah Almighty says in the Quran:
فَتَيَمَّمُواْ صَعِيداً طَيِّباً))
 "…then head for wholesome dust…", that is, clean earth.

Method on Performing Tayammum
In making Tayammum, the following sequence is recommended:
1.     Making Niyyah (intention) in the heart that this act of Tayammum is for the purpose of purification.
2.     Tasmiyah (saying: “Bismillah”).
3.     Striking the palms of the hands slightly on pure earth (or any object on which Tayammum is valid).
4.     Shaking off hands to remove debris.
5.     Wiping the whole face.
6.     Striking the palms of the hands slightly on pure earth again.
7.     Shaking off hands.
8.     Wiping the right hand down to the wrist with the left hand and the left hand down to the wrist with the right hand. 

The following video shows how to make Tayammum

·        Whoever cannot get water or soil may pray in whatever state he is in, and he will not have to repeat his prayer later. 
·        Soil that has already been used for Tayammum can be re-used again.
·        However if he finds water during his prayer, his prayer becomes invalid and he is required to perform Wudhu' and repeat the prayer. But if he finds water after he has already finished prayer then he will not have to repeat his prayer. 
·        A single Tayammum suffices for more than one Fard (obligatory) rites as long as he did not break his Tayammum.
·        Tayammum can be done before the time for a Fard prayer has come if one is sure that he will not get or find water in time.

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